Ukuqubuka kobulwelwe besilephero e-Robben Island

Ekusukeni ekubeni lijele ukuya ekubeni sibhedlela

©David Fleminger
I-Robben Island kwakuyindawo ehle yokuthumela abantu abahlanyako,abangakaphili kuhle nabanokugula okungapholiko,egade bangenza abantu beSewula Africa bona bagandeleleke ngokomkhumbulo.

Ukubeka abantu abanganatjhudwaba e-Island le, kude namehlo nonembeza westjhaba kwakubonakala anga kungararulula umraro loyo, kusukela ngonyaka ka-1846 kuya kewa-1931, iRobben island gade isetjenziswa njengetanka yokuhlukanisa abantu abangafunekiko.

Phakathi kweminyaka yabo-1800 kwathoma ubulwelwe be-silephero, abantu agade banobulwelwe besilephero egade inengi babo kubabantu abanzima, abatlhagako. Kokuthoma, gade babongazimbi bamalwelwe amambi (ngeskhatheso ipengu yaso gade ingaziwa) kwesibili gade babongazimbi bomphakathi onganatjhejo begodu ongaqoleli ogade ungabafuni, uthi bayingozi begodu ubabona njengabantu abayingozi. Nanamhlanjesi, isilephero isaziwa njengobulwelwe obuyi-virus nebuthelelanako obenza imino yakho iwe, begodu iskhumba sakho sibole. Kodwana akusisinjalo.

E-Robben island egade banelungelo lokugada, gade batlhogomela abantu abanesilepherwabo ngendlela ebegade bakghona ngayo. Ekungezeleleni ekubapheni amapilisi wokukhambisa indeni anamandla nangatlhogekiko, bekuqatjangwa bona amanzi welwandle gade akghelebha abantu abanobulwelwobu, begodu gade babenzele idamu ngale kwe-island lapho gade bahlambela khona. Iinsalela zamanzi wedamelo, elibizwa i-Baths of Bethesda, zisesekhona nanamhlanjesi begodu zisajamile, amanzi anzima. Abantu abanesilephero beKapa gade bahlukaniswe nemindeni yabo kanye nabangani egade banabo balahlwe e-island.

Ubujamo bepilo esihlengeleni se-Robben Island

©David Fleminger
Ubujamo behlalo behlalo e-island bebubumbi khulu. Ukulethwa kwamanzi gade kubudisi, ubujamo bezulu bebungangaqoleli, umzwangedwa gade ungajameleki, nobulwelwe obufana ne-dysentry gade bandile.

Ngeminyaka yabo -1850, kwenzeka umhlolo owathoma ngobujamo besihlengelenesi abaphathi bayo bakateleleka bona baqothe umphathi wayo Ngonyaka ka-1860 umphathi omutjha walinga ukuyitlama ngabutjha ukulatjhwa kwangrhaphi kwajamiselela amaketani nokubethwa ngehlelo le-occupational therapy nokugadwa babantu. Iindawo zayo gade solo zisebujameni obungakalungi, kodwana ubujamo bembotjhwa gade bungakafaneli inani lokwakhiwa kwemakhiwo emitjha. Ukulungiswa kwejeleli okukhulu kwenziwa ngonyaka ka-1890.

Kwathi ngonyaka ka-1931, ihlangano ye-League of Nations Health Organisation yamemezela bona ukuhlukaniswa kwabantu abanesilephero akusatlhogeki begodu kufanele kwenziwe umthetho omutjha wokubahlukanisa ovumela amalwelwe athethelanako, nangathathelaniko. Ukubhaqiswa kwabantu abanesilephero e-Robben Island kwavalwa ngonyaka loyo. Iingulani ezasalako zathunyelwa esibhedlela se-Westfort, eduze kwePitori.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe