Kuhangalaka ka mavabyi ya Leprosy Robben Island

Kusuka e khotsweni kuya eka Infirmary

©David Fleminger
Robben Island akuri ndzhawu ya kahle swinene kurhumela vanhu lavangana swiphiqo emihleketweni, mavabyi yoka yanga tshunguleki, lava avata tshikelela vaaki va tiko ra Afrika Dzonga. Kuveka vanhu lava exihlaleni lexi, ekule na matihlo ya vanhu swivonaka onge akuri xintshuxo xa kahle eka xiphiqo lexi naswona kusukela hi 1846 kuya eka 1931, Robben Island ayitirhisiwa ku hlayisa vanhu va muxaka walowo.

Exikarhi ka malembe yava 1800’s, kuve na kuhangalaka ka mavabyi ya leprosy. Vavabyi va wona akutele vantima lava ava hluphekile swinene akuri vona lava avangari na nkateko. Xosungula ava hlaseriwe hi mavabyi lawa yovava swinene lawa hinkarhi wakona ayanga tshunguleki, xavumbirhi avari exikarhi ka vaaki lava avanga tivi nchumu naku mpfumala ndzivalelo laha ava tekiwa tani hi vanhu voka vanga basangi vangana khombo. Ku fikela namuntlha, vutivi lebyinga kona hi mavabyi lawa hileswaku bya tlulela swinene, leswi endlaka leswaku tintiho ta wena ti wa kumbe ku kwamukela ka nhlonge. Ntiyiso iku abyi chavisi ngopfu.

E Robben Island, vinyi va ndzhawu leyi aku hlayiseriwa eka yona vavabyi lava hivona ava hlayisa vavabyi hindlela leyi vakotaka yona. Ku tlhandlekela kwalano, ava nyikiwa muri lowu awuva chulukisa swinene naswona akuri na ntshembo wa leswaku mati ya lwandle ya pfuna vanhu lava xanisiwaka hi mavabyi lawa, leswinga endla leswaku kuya endliwa na ndzhawu yo hlambela kona emakumu swinene na xihlala lexi. Masalela eka xihlambelo lexi, aya vuriwa Baths of Bethesda, yahari kona na namuntlha, mati ya ntima swinene lawa ya kumekaka kusuhi na khumbi ra maribye lawa yaw aka eka ndzhawu ya vaaki lavanga tsakangiki. Vavabyi lava vale Cape ava hambanyisiwa na maxaka na vanghana lava vangavaka vari na vona kutani vayisiwa e xihlaleni.

Xiyimo xa vutomi e xihlaleni

©David Fleminger
Xiyimo xa vutomi byale xihlaleni axi chavisa. Mphakelo wa mati akuri lawa yangana munyu, maxelo ayangari na ntwela vusiwana, xivundza axikarhata swinene naswona mavabyi yofana na dysentery aya tele swinene. Hiva 1850s, kuve na swiviko swa xiyimo xa vutomi endzhawini liya lexinga humela ehandle laha vathori vangavuya va hlongola murhangeri wa ndzhawu leyi.

Hi malembe yava 1860s, murhangeri wuntshwa uringetile ku cinca makhomiwelo ya vavabyi, laha anga cunca mhaka yaku boheleriwa hiti nketani naku biwa ka vanhu hikuvalavela mpfuneto wa xinawu naku vekiwa tihlo ka ximunhu. Kuva switirhisiwa aswinga ringanelangi, leswi aswinga hlamuseli leswaku kufanele ku akiwa miako yo durha yintshwa. Kululamisiwa ka ndzhawu leyi ava tshama eka yona swivuye swiva kona hi 1890s.

Hi 1931, va League of Nations Health Organisation vahlamusele leswaku ku hambanyisiwa ka vavabyi lava na vaaki aswingari na nkoka naswona swifanele kuyirisiwa kulangutiwa maendlelo yanwani, nawu lowu nga endla leswaku kuva na swiyimo swaku tluleriwa nakuka kunga tluleriwi hi mavabyi lawa. Ndzhawu leyi ayi tshama vavabyi lava e Robben Island yivuye yipfariwa lembe rero. Vavabyi lava ava sele vavuye varhumeriwa exibedlhele xa Westfort, kusuhi na Pretoria.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni