Izinyosi kanye Nesakhiwo sazo Senhlalo

©Éric Tourneret
Izinyosi zoju izinambuzane zenhlalakahle futhi ahlala emakoloni amakhulu. Ikoloni ngayinye iqukethe owesifazane owodwa ovundile (indlovukazi) nezinkulungwane eziningi zezinyosi ezisebenzayo (izinsikazi eziyinyumba), kodwa izinyanga ezimbalwa phakathi nehlobo i-koloni izoba namadoda angamakhulu ambalwa aziwa ngokuthi ama-drones. Ngokuvamile, azikho ama-drones ekoloni phakathi nezinyanga zasebusika.

Ekuphakameni kwehlobo, kunabasebenzi abangaba ngu-50 000 - 60 000 emakoloni, kanye ne-drones nendlovukazi.

Kuze kube sekupheleni kwekwindla amakoloni amaningi asethuthukile amancane, (amaqanda, izibungu, iziphuku), ndawonye eyaziwa ngokuthi i-brood. Lezi zikhuliswe emanqeni we-wax, nawo aqukethe izitolo zokudla koloni. Ebusika, ukukhulisa ama-brood kunganciphisa noma kumile futhi ikoloni ihlala ekudleni (uju kanye nempova) iqoqe futhi igcinwe ngesikhathi sehlobo.

Ngonyaka omuhle u-beekeeper uyakwazi ukuthatha uju oludlulayo kusukela ekoloni, okushiya ngokwanele ukuba ikoloni iphile ezinyangeni ezibandayo kuze kufike entwasahlobo elandelayo.

Amalungu Omndeni Wezinyosi

©Waugsberg
Umndeni wezinyosi uqukethe amakilasi amabili amabhinqa, indlovukazi nenyosi yesisebenzi. Amadoda ayaziwa njengezinyosi ze-drone. Isakhiwo esijwayelekile se-honey bee colony sifana nesinye sezinambuzane, kodwa ngasinye samakilasi amathathu (isisebenzi, indlovukazi kanye ne-drone) sinikezwa izakhiwo ezikhethekile ezilungiswa izindima zabo ezikhethekile.

Ezinyunyeni zezinyosi zasehlobo zihlala cishe amasonto ayisithupha, kodwa ebusika benomsebenzi omncane okumele bawenze, bangaphila izinyanga ezi-6. Indlovukazi iyilungu elikhulu kunazo zonke kuleli koloni futhi lihlala iminyaka eminingana. Indima yakhe ukubeka amaqanda ukukhiqiza izinyosi eziningi. Nguyena kuphela onyosi, ongabeka amaqanda akhulelwe. Isibeletho sakhe eside siqukethe ama-ovaries akhiqiza izinamba eziningi zamaqanda esikhathini eside.

Indlovukazi iyakwazi ukucacisa ubulili benzalo ayenayo ngokulawula ukukhulelwa kwamaqanda awabekayo. Iqanda elikhulelwe lizokhula libe yizinyosikazi (isisebenzi noma indlovukazi) kanye namaqanda angenalutho aqhutshwa abe ngamadoda (i-drones). Ukuba nokulawula lokhu kubalulekile ekusebenzeni kahle kololoni, njengoba ikoloni kufanele ihlanganise inani labantu labasebenzi ukuze benze umsebenzi omkhulu.

©Chris Daly
I-drones inkulu kunesisebenzi, kodwa hhayi enkulu njengendlovukazi. Indima yabo njengezinyosi zesilisa ekoloni iwukuba uxoxisane nenkosikazi ukuze ikwazi ukubeka amaqanda azalisiwe. Izitho zobulili zika drone zithatha ingxenye enkulu yesisu sayo. I-Drones ihlala izinyanga ezimbalwa ehlobo, kepha ixoshwa ngaphandle koloni lapho kubusika.

Izisebenzi zezinyosi zenza iningi lemisebenzi ekoloni njengokuhlanza amaseli, ukondla ama-brood, ukukhiqiza i-wax, ukwakha ama-combs, ukuvuthisa isidleke, ukulinda umnyango, ukuhlinzekela ukudla nokucubungula i-honey in honey. Imisebenzi e-beehive ihlobene nobudala. Isibonelo, izisebenzi ezincane kunazo zonke zivame ukwenza njengabahlanza ngaphakathi koloni kanti izisebenzi ezindala kunazo zonke ziyizingodo.

Izinyosi eNingizimu Afrika

©Dr Tlou Masehela
Kunezinhlobo eziningi ezihlukahlukene zezinyosi kanti ama-subspecies ahluke ngombala, ubumnene, ukukhiqiza kanye nokuphikisa kwabo ezinambuzane nezifo. Ezinye izinyosi zitholakala kalula futhi zilula ukulawula kanti ezinye zihlukumeze futhi zingenakugwenywa.

Ngokusho kwe-South African bee Industry Organization (SABIO), iNingizimu Afrika ihlala ezincane ezincane zomdabu, i-Apis mellifera Scutellata (noma "izinyosi zase-Afrika") ne-Apis mellifera Capensis (noma "i-Cape bee"). Inyosi yaseCape ihlala ezindaweni zeFynbos eNtshonalanga naseNingizimu Kapa. Inyosi yase-Afrika ihlala enyakatho yale ndawo, kepha kunezimboni kulezi zifunda ezimbili futhi lapha i-Cape bee kanye ne-African bee cross-breed.

Inyosi yaseCape ivame ukuthula futhi ibe mnyama kunezinyosi zase-Afrika. Kuyinto ehlukile ukuthi izinyosi zesisebenzi seKapa zingabalula kokubili inzalo yowesilisa nowesifazane emakoloni, abe yindlovukazi. Izinyosi zaseCape zingathatha izinkolo zezinyosi zase-Afrika nezinyosi zesisebenzi saseKapa ezihlasela futhi zibeke amaqanda azo.

Inyosi yase-Afrika inonya futhi iveza izitshalo ezinkulu zobusi. Inesisu esineqhwa eliqhamuka kakhulu uma kuqhathaniswa nezinyosi zaseCape. Izinyosi zesisebenzi zase-Afrika azikwazi ukuphelelwa amandla uma indlovukazi ikhona kodwa ingafaka amaqanda angabonakali, ama-drone.

Translated by Nsika Khoza