Tinyoxi na Mahanyelo ya Tona

©Éric Tourneret
Loaded with white or yellow pollen, worker bees return to the hive with their loads of pollen.
Tinyoxi ta vulombe i switsotswana swa kahle naswona swihanya swiri mintlawa leyikulu. Ntlawa wun’wana na wunwana wuna nyoxi yin’we leyi tswalaka naswona leti totala ta magidi gidi ati tswali tiri ta xisati, kambe hi ximumu mintlawa leyi yitava na madzana dzana ya taxinuna letitivekaka tani hiti drones. Hintolovelo kuva kuri hava ti drones eka ntlawa himinkarhi ya xixika. Exikarhi ka ximumu, kungava na tinyoxi tale xikarhi ka 50 000 - 60 000 eka ntlawa, xikan’we nati drones nati queen.

Kuya fikela emakumu ka ximunwana mintlawa yotala yiva na kuhumelerisiwa ka vana (matandza, larvae, pupae), leswitivekaka tani hi brood. Leswi switshikeriwa eka wax combs, leyi nayona yivaka na ntlawa wa vuhlayiselo bya swakudya. Hi xixika, kutshikeriwa ka brood swingava swihunguta kumbe ku yimisa naswona ntlawa wu hanya hi swakudya (vulombe na pollen) leswinga hlengeletiwa naku hlayisiwa hi ximumu. Eka lembe ra kahle muhlayisi wa tinyoxi u kota ku teka vulombe byotala eka ntlawa, asiya byoringana leswaku tinyoxi tita hanya hi byona himinkarhi ya xirhami kufikel kuyava ximunwana.

Swirho swa Ntlawa wa Tinyoxi

©Waugsberg
The queen bee (centre) lays the eggs while the working bees, surrounding her forages for food.
Tinyoxi ta vulombe tina tinxaka timbiri ta xisati, laha kungana queen na worker bee. Ta xinuna titiveka tani hiti drones. Xivumbeko xa ntolovelo xa tinyoxi ta vulombe na ntlawa swafana na swinwana switsotswana, kambe yin’wana na yin’wana ya mintlawa yale yinharhuhe (worker, queen na drone) yi endleriwa xivumbeko xo hlawuleka kuya hi mintirho ya tona.

Hi ximumu ti worker bees tihanya kuringana 6 wa mavhiki, kambe hi xixika laha tingariki na ntirho tinga hanya kuringana 6 wa tinhweti. Leyi ya queen hiyona yinga tala hi nhlayo eka ntlaw naswona yihanya kuringana malembe. Ntirho wa yona iku tshikela matandza leswaku kutava na tinwana tinyoxi totala. I nyoxi yiri yoxe leyingata tshikela matandza lawa yangata humesa swivanani. Khwiri ra yona lerikulu rina ti ovaries leti humesaka nhlayo yale henhla ya matandza eka minkarhi leyi yo leha.

Leyi ya queen yikota kulawura rimbewu ra vana lava yiva tswalaka hikuva yi fertilise matandza lawa yiwa tshikelaka. Tandza leringa fertilized rita humesa nyoxi ya xisati (worker kumbe queen) kasi lerinwana rita humesa ya xinuna (drones). Kuva na vulawuri swina nkoka swinene eka rihanyo ra ntlawa, tani hi ntlawa lowukulu wa taxisati tifanele kuva titirha ntirho wotala swinene.

Ti drones tikule kutlula ti worker, kambe ati kulangi kuhundza ti queen. Ntirho watona tani tinyoxi ta xinuna eka ntlawa ikuva ti endla masangu na ti queen leswaku matandza yatava fertilised. Swirho swa masangu swati drone switekaxivandla xikulu xa khwiri ratona. Ti drones ti hanya kuringana tinhweti nyana hi ximumu kambe ta hlongoriwa eka ntlawa loko kufika xixika.

Ti worker ti endla mintirho yotala swinene eka ntlawa kufana naku basisa ti cells, kuphamela ti brood, kuhumelerisa wax, ku aka swihlenge, kutisa moya e bakwini, ku rindza nyangwa, ku lava swakudya naku cinca nectar yiva honey. Mintirho e bakwini yia hi vukhale. Xikombiso, ti workers letintsongo titirha ku basisa eka ntlawa kasi letikulu ti lava swakudya.

©Chris Daly
Ti drones tikule kutlula ti worker, kambe ati kulangi kuhundza ti queen. Ntirho watona tani tinyoxi ta xinuna eka ntlawa ikuva ti endla masangu na ti queen leswaku matandza yatava fertilised. Swirho swa masangu swati drone switekaxivandla xikulu xa khwiri ratona. Ti drones ti hanya kuringana tinhweti nyana hi ximumu kambe ta hlongoriwa eka ntlawa loko kufika xixika.

Ti worker ti endla mintirho yotala swinene eka ntlawa kufana naku basisa ti cells, kuphamela ti brood, kuhumelerisa wax, ku aka swihlenge, kutisa moya e bakwini, ku rindza nyangwa, ku lava swakudya naku cinca nectar yiva honey. Mintirho e bakwini yia hi vukhale. Xikombiso, ti workers letintsongo titirha ku basisa eka ntlawa kasi letikulu ti lava swakudya.

Tinyoxi eAfrika Dzonga

©Dr Tlou Masehela
Kuna tinxaka totala swinene ta tinyoxi ta vulombe na minxaka yin’wana leyi hambanaka hi mihlovo, ntumbuluko, vuhumelerisi na kukondzelela ka tona eka switsotswana na mavabyi. Tinyoxi tinwana tilulamele kuteka swileriso naswona swa olova ku tilawu kasi tinwana tina nkanu nakuka tinga lawuleki.

Kuya hi va South African Bee Industry Organisation (SABIO), Afrika Dzonga i kaya ra tinxaka timbirhi ta tinyoxi, Apis mellifera Scutellata (kumbe “African bee”) na Apis mellifera Capensis (kumbe “Cape bee”). Muxaka wa Cape bee wutshama eka tindzhawu ta fynbos tale Western na Southern Cape. Kasi muxaka wa African bee titshama e n’walungwini wa ndzhawu liya, kambe kuna kuhundza nyana eka tindzhawu letiya timbirhi naswona laha muxaka wa Cape bee na wa African bee ya hlanganisiwa.

Muxaka wa Cape bee wutala kuva wuhorile naswona wudzwiharile eka lowu wa African bee. Wu hlawulekile hileswaku Cape worker bees wuhumesa vana va xinuna na va xisati eka ntlhambi wa tona, lowu pfumalaka murhangeri wa xisati. Cape bees ti teka vulawuri ehenhla ka African bee laha ti Cape worker bees tinghenaka titshikela matandza yatona.

Muxaka wa African bee wuna nkanu naswona wuhumelerisa vulombe byotala swinene. Tina milayeni yotala swinene laha khwirini loko ti pimanyisiwa na Cape bee. African worker bees ati tswali loko murhangeri wa tona wa xisati ari kona kambe tinga tshikela matandza.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni