Iinyosi Nokwakheka Kwazo

©Éric Tourneret
Iinyosi zinunwana ezihlala zizinengi. Umhlambi ngamunye umumethe inyosi yinye esikazi (indlovukazi) kanye namakhulukhulu weenyosi ezibasebenzi (iinyosi esisikazi ezingabelethiko), kodwana iinyanga ezimbalwa ehlobo umhlambi weenyosi umumatha amakhulukhulu weenyosi eziduna. Kuvamise bona umhlambi ungabi nazo iinyosi eziduna ebusika.

Ehlobo, kungaba nabasebenzi beenyosi abayi-50 000 - 60 000 emhlanjini sele kuhlangene nabentwabazo kanye nendlovu.

Kuze kubengesiruthwana imihlambi eminengi iba neenyosi ezincani (amaqanda, ilava kanye ne-pupae) sele kuhlangene kubizwa bona yi-brood. Zikhuliselwa emakhekhebani, amumethe ukudla kwenyosezi. Ebusika, ukubeletha abentwana kuyaphunguka nanyana kuthule begodu umlambi udla ukudla (iliju kanye ne-pollen) egade zikubuthelela ehlobo.

Ngonyaka omuhle umfuyi weenyosi urhona ukuthatha iliju eliseleko emhlambini, atjhiye elaneleko ukobana iinyosi zirhone ukuphila ebusika kuze kufike itwasahlobo.

Amalunga Womhlambi Weenyosi

©Waugsberg
Umhlambi weenyosi umumethe iinqhema ezimbili ezisikazi, iindlovukazi kanye neenyosi ezibasebenzi. Iinyosi eziduna zaziwa njengenyosi ezima-drone. Isakhiwo somhlambi weenyosi siyefana nesenunwana ezinye, kodwana sinye eengabeni ezintathwezi (umsebenzi, indlovukazi kanye nabentwana) zinikezwe umakhiwo ofanelana nemisebenzi yazo.

Ehlobo iinyosi ezibasebenzi ziphila iimveke ezisithandathu, kodwana ebusika ngombana zinganamsebenzi omnengi eziwenzako ziphila iinyanga ezisithandathu. Indlovukazi lilunga lazo elikhulu begodu iphila iminyaka embalwa. Umberego wayo kubekela amaqanda akhiqiza iinyosi ezinengi. Uyinyosi yinye tere erhona ukubekela amaqanda avundisiweko.

Amathumbu wakhe amade amumethe ama-ovary arhona ukukhiqiza inani elinengi lamaqanda isikhathi eside. Indlovukazi irhona ukobona ubulili beenyosi ezincani azikhiqizako ngokulawula ukuvundiswa kwamaqanda awabekelako. Iqanda elivundisiweko liphenduka libe yinyosi esikazi (nekuyinyosi emsebenzi nanyana eyindlovukazi) amaqanda angakavundiswa aphenduka abezinyosi eziduna. Ukuba nelawulweli kuqakathekile ukutheni umhlambe uphile kuhle, ngombana umhlambi ulthoga abasebenzi abanengi ukuze benze umsebenzi omnengi.

©Chris Daly
Iinyosi eziduna zikhulu kunalezo ezibasebenzi, kodwana azisizikhulu njengendlovukazi. Umsebenzi wenyosi eduna emhlanjini kuhlanganyela ngokomseme nendlovukazi ukuze irhone ukubekela amaqanda avundisiweko. Isitho sangasese senyosi eduna sithatha incenye ekulu emathumbini wayo. Iinyosi eziduna ziphila iinyanga ezimbalwa ebusika, kodwana ziqothwe emhlambini lokha nakufika ubusika.

Iinyosi ezibasebenzi zenza imisebenzi eminengi emhlanjini ofana nokuhlwengisa amaseli, ukufunza abentwana, ukukhiqiza i-wax, ukwakha amakhekheba, ukungenisa umoya ezindlwini, ukugada emnyango, ukuzuma ukudla kanye nokutjhugulula i-nectar ibe liliju. Imisebenzi eyenziwa ezindlini zeenyosi uya ngeminyaka yazo. Isibonelo, iinyosi ezincani zidlala indima yokuhlwengisa emhlanjini lokha ezidala zizuma ukudla.

Iinyosi eSewula Africa

©Dr Tlou Masehela
Kunemihlobo eminengi eyahlukeneko yeenyosi begodu zihluka ngombala, ubukhali, kanye nokukhiqiza kwazo begodu nokungabanjwa kwazo malwelwe kanye nezinye iinunwana. Ezinye iinyosi kulula ukuzilawula lokha ezinye zibukhali begodu kungarhonakali ukuzilawula.

Ngokuya ngokwehlangano ye-South African Bee Industry Organisation (SABIO), iSewula Africa likhaya leenyosi zendabuko ezimbili, i-Apis mellifera Scutellata (nanyana i-“African bee”) kanye ne-Apis mellifera Capensis (nanyana i-“Cape bee”). Inyosi yeKapa le ihlala eendaweni ezine- fynbos zePumalanga neTjhingalanga yeKapa. I-African bee yona ihlala epumalanga yendawo, kodwana kunalapha kuhlangana khona iimfunda ezimbilezi begodu lapha kulapha kuhlangana khona inyosi yomhlobo we-Cape bee kanye ne-African bee.

I-Cape bee inombala onzima khulu kune-African bee begodu ayisibukhali khulu njengenyosi yomhlobo we-African Bee. Ihlukile ngombana abasebenzi bomhlobo wenyosi i-Cape bee barhona ukukhiqiza iinyosi ezincani eziduna nezizsikazi emhlambini,osele unganayo indlovukazi. Iinyosi zomhlobo we-Cape bee zirhona ukuhlasela bezithathe imihlambi yeenyosi zomhlobo we-African bee nabasenzi benyosi zeKapa bezibekele wazo amaqanda.

Iinyosi zomhlobo we-African bee zibukhali begodu zikhiqiza iliju elinengi. Zinamathumbu asarulana anamalayini nayimadaniswa neenyosi zomhlobo weKapa. Abasebenzi benyosi ze-Africa ababelethi lokha indlovukazi nayikhona kodwana barhona ukubekela amaqanda angakavundiswa akhiqiza iinyosi eziduna.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe