Tinyosi Nendlela Yato Yekuchumana

©Éric Tourneret
Tinyosi teluju tilwanyana letichumanako futsi tihlala ngemihlambi lemikhulu. Umhlambi ngamunye utfwele yinye lensikati levutsiwe (indlovukati) bese letinye letitinkhulungwane letiningi letisebentako (letinsikati letingakhoni kutala bantfwana), kepha iminyaka lembalwa ngesikhatsi sasehlobo umhlambi ungatfwala letindvuna letimbalwa letatiwa ngekutsi ngema tinyosi letindvuna. Kuvame kutsi, kubebete umhlambi wetinyosi letindvuna ngesikhatsi sasebusika.

Ekuphakameni kwelihlobo, kungabakhona inombolo lengemashumi lasihlanu kuya kumashumi lasitfupha etinkhulungwane etisebenti letingumhlambi, kanyekanye tinyosi letindvuna kanye netindlovukati.

Kuze kube sekugcineni lwelikwindla incumbi yemihlambi ibanalabancane labakhulako, (emacandza, tibungu, nesigaba lapho tigucuka tibabadzala), nakubumbiwe kutsiwa kufukamela. Letitinakekelwa endzaweni, lephindze itfwele kudla lokugciniwe kwemihlambi. Ngesikhatsi sasebusika, kufukamela kuvame kwehla kancane noma kume bese lemihlambi ihlala kulokudla (luju nalokutselako) kuhlangene kwase kuyagcineka ngesikhatsi sasehlobo.

Emnyakeni lomuhle umgciniwetinyosi uyakhona kutsatsa loluju kulomhlambi, aphineddze ashiye lolwenele lwalomhlambi kute ukhone kuphila etinyangeni letibandzako kuze kufike intfwasahlobo lelandzelako.

Emalunga eMhlambi we Tinyosi

©Waugsberg
Umhlambi wetinyosi teluju unemakilasi lamabili aletinsikati, indlovukati kanye netisebenti. Leletindvuna tatiwa ngekutsi tinyosi letindvuna. Lokuma kwaletinyosi teluju letingumhlambi kuyafana naloko kwaletinye tilwanyana, kepha linye lalamkilasi lamatsatfu (tisebenti, indlovukati kanye naletindvuna tinyosi) tinikwa simo lesilungisiwe lesatsatfwa kumisebenti yato lemicoka.

Ehlobo tinyosi letisebentako tihlala emaviki lasitfupha, kepha ebusika ngenca yemsebenti lomncane lowentiwako, tingahlala kuzekube tinyanga letisitfupha. Lendlovukati nguyona ililunga lelikhulu lalomhlambi iphindze iphile iminyaka leminingi. Umsebenti wakhe kutalela emacandza kwentela kukhokha tinyosi letiningi. Ngiyo kuphela inyosi, lengatalela emacandza lavundzisiwe. Incenye yemtimba lendze itfwele tigadla letikhokha inombolo lenkhulu yemacandza ngesikhatsi lesidze. Lendlovukati iyakhona kwati bulili bentfwana lomncane losatotalwa lakamakha ngekunaka kuvundziswa kwalamacandza lawatalelako. Licandza lelivundzisiwe lingakhipha inyosi lensikati (sisebenti noma indlovukati) bese lawo langavundziswa akhokha letindvuna (tinyosi letindvuna). Kuba nalokunaka loku kubalulekile ekukhuleni/ekuphileni kwemihlambi, njengoba umhlambi kumele ufake inombolo lenkhulu yetisebenti kutsi titfwale lomsebenti lomkhulu.

©Chris Daly
Letinyosi letindvuna tinkhulu kunaletitisebenti letinsikati, kepha atitinkhulu njenge ndlovukati. Umsebenti wato njengoba titindvuna kulomhlambi kumele tihlangane nendlovukati khona itokhona kutalela emacandza lavundzisiwe. Incenye yebulili baletindvuna tinyosi itsatsa incenye yemtimba longephansi. Tinyosi letindvuna tiphila tinyanga letiningana ngesikhatsi sasehlobo kepha tikhishwa ngumhlambi nakufika sikhatsi sasebusika.

Letinyosi letinsikati tenta umsebenti wato lomningi kulomhlambi njengekuklina emaseli, kupha kudla letifukamele, kukhokha lokumanti lakomako, kwakha tintfo letipatalele, kuvula tikhala emabhokisini letihlala kiwo, kugadza ekungeneni/iminyango, kuyaluka kudla kanye nekwakha lokunongotelako kube luju. Imisebenti emabhokisini etinyosi ahlobene nemnyaka. Njengekutsi, tinyosi letinsikati letincane tivame kwenta kuklina kulomhlambi tibe letindzala tiyaluka kudla.

Tinyosi eNingizimu Afrika

©Dr Tlou Masehela
Tinengi kakhulu tinhlobo tetinyosi teluju kantsi nalamacembu lamancane ayehlukana ngelibala, indlela letenta ngayo, kukhicitwa kwako kanye nekungavani netilwanyana letincane kanye netifo. Letinye tinyosi tiyalalela futsi kulula kutinaka tibe letinye tinelulaka futsi ticishe tinganakeki malula.

Ngekusho kwe South African Bee Industry Organisation (SABIO) - Litiko Lelisebenta Ngetinyosi eNingizimu Afrika, iNingizimu Afrika ilikhaya kumacembu lamancane lamabili emvelo, Apis melllifera Scutellata (noma "Inyosi yase Afrika”) ne Apis mellifera Capensis (noma “Inyosi yase Cape”). Lenyosi yase Cape ihlala kundzawo ye titjalo tesiganga yase Western Case Southern Cape. Lenyosi yase Afrika ihlala enyakatfo yakulendzawo, kepha kuukhona kuphuphuma kuletigodzi letimbili bese lana lenyosi yase Cape kanye neyase Afrika tiyahlangana.

Lenyosi yase Cape ivama kubaphansi futsi imnyama kunaleyo yase Afrika. Lokukhweshile ngayo kutsi Lelensikati inyosi yase Cape ingakhokha bantfwana labadvuna nalabasikati emhlammbini, lokube yintfo lengenabo bundlovukati, tinyosi tase Cape tingatsatsa kumhlambi wetinyosi tase Afrika ngekutsi tinyosi letinsikati tase Cape tingenele bese titalela emacandza ato.

Lenyosi yase Afrika ineludlame futsi ikhokha inhlanyelo lenkhulu yeluju. Inalilayini lelimtfubi leliningi ngentasi nawuyicudzanisa nenyosi yase Cape. Tinyosi letinsikati tase Afrika ativundzisi kahle uma indlovukati ikhona kepha tingatalela emacandza aletindvuna tinyosi, langavundziswa.

Translated by Phindile Malotana