Isiboshwa uMandela kushiwo ngu Raymond Louw

© Eric Miller

Igunya lokuziphatha

Ukhetho luka-1994 lwaphetha iminyaka engu-342 yokubusa kwamadoda amhlophe, amadoda agcwele umqondo wokuthi ukukhanya kwabo kanye nemvelaphi yabo yaseYurobhu kwabanika ilungelo lokubusa ngaphandle kokubonisana ngezigidi zabantu abamnyama abahlala eNingizimu Afrika. Ukuguqulwa kwakumangalisa ngenxa yendlela enokuthula eyenzeka ngayo ngemuva kokuba amabhomu ayeke futhi ngenxa yobujamo bomuntu owenza okuningi ukwenza lokhu kwenzeke.


Izinguquko ziye zavela ngezenzakalo ezihlukahlukene nezimo ezihlukahlukene. Kungaba nzima ukukhumbula inguquko eyaqala nesiboshwa esenza isigwebo sokuphila ezweni elibuswa umbuso wobudlova futhi lingenamandla ngaphezu kwegunya lokuziphatha nangokufuna kwakhe. Kusukela kulesi sikhundla esingenakwenzeka, uMandela osejele ucele abaholi bezombangazwe ukuthi kufanele baxoxisane neningi labantu abamnyama ukuqeda ubandlululo.


Yizinto ezingenakwenzeka eziphusheni zothando - umuntu oyedwa, obonakala ehamba ebugqilini bakhe, eba nesibindi sokuphakamisa ababoshwa bakhe ukuthi banikele amandla abawasebenzisayo futhi bathole inqubo engaba nomphumela owodwa kuphela: ukunikezelwa kwegunya kubantu abacindezelekile.

Izinxushunxushu zomphakathi zigwemekile

Okunye okwakushiwo umlando ngokujwayelekile: ukubanjwa kwabaphathi babo bonke, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kuyindleko, kuze kube yilapho zombili izinhlangothi zisondele ukubhubisana empi yombango, zishiye abanqobile ukuba babhekane nomsebenzi omkhulu wokuzama ukulawula ngenkathi ukuvuselela isizwe esiphohlokile.

Abantu baseNingizimu Afrika abayizigidi ezingamashumi amane baye bagwema lokho, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yesibindi, ukuzimisela, umcabango namandla omuntu onguMandela osejele. Ngokungangabazeki, ngaleso sikhathi uMongameli uFrederik Willem de Klerk wayengumuntu obalulekile kule nqubo. Kodwa uDe Klerk wayefunde kahle izimpawu. Wayazi ukuthi uma uhulumeni wakhe eqhubeka nokubandlululwa nokuhlukunyezwa,izwe lizohlakazeka, kuqala ngokobucayi libe yizingxabano zomphakathi.

I-Alcatraz yaseNingizimu Afrika

Isiboshwa uMandela wafika ezingxoxweni namathalenta ayewalole ejele. Wabonakalisa ukuzithoba okukhulu,akalokothi akhohlwe imbangela yakhe futhi wasebenzisa wonke amathuba okutadisha. Wayengumholi we-Alcatraz waseNingizimu Afrika, uRobben Island, indoda eyagqugquzela iziboshwa ezikanye naye, ukuba bafunde futhi bakhiwe amandla abo engokwenyama nangokwengqondo. Wabonisa ukubekezelela okukhulu imibono yezombangazwe ephikisanayo futhi wabumbana ubunye phakathi kweziboshwa ezikanye naye.

Wahlonishwa yiziboshwa ezikanye naye njengophawu lokulwa kwabo Ngaphansi kokuhola kwakhe iziboshwa zazakhela izinhlelo zokuxhumana phakathi kwabo kanye nobuholi be-ANC abandingisiweyo phesheya.Ukusebenzisa izindlela ezifanayo iziboshwa nazo zagcinwa ezingalinganisweni nentuthuko ebalulekile yezombusazwe "ngaphandle". Wabuye wabhala indlela yakhe yokuphila, "Long Walk to Freedom", eyalotshwa ngokubhala okuncane yiziboshwa ezimbili futhi ekugcineni yagcinwa ngokuphepha nguMac Maharaj.

Izwe elizimele elimnyama

Uhulumeni wazama ukunciphisa ukumelana kwakhe ngokumnika ukukhululwa - ngawo-1970 - ukuze ahloniphe lokho okuthiwa "izwe elizimele elimnyama" laseTranskei futhi avumele ukuba abekwe ngaphakathi kwemingcele yawo. Ukube wayemukele wayezovuma ukuthi "U-Apartheid", inqubomgomo yokuhlukanisa izwe emaqenjini amaningi amnyama lapho abantu abamnyama "bezozibusa khona".

UMandela wayenqaba ngokucacile. Ngakho uhulumeni walahleka ngaleyo ndlela, kodwa ngonyaka wama-1980 wenza esinye isilingo sokumkhulula esimweni sokuthi ulahle udlame. Uphendule ukuthi "iziboshwa azikwazi ukungena ezinkontileka" futhi ohlwini lufuna ukuthi uhulumeni ayeke ukulwa nabantu abamnyama. Kwakuyisipho esilindele ngoba ngaleso sikhathi uMandela wayekade ejele iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-20. Ukunikezwa okufanayo kwadluliselwa kwezinye iziboshwa, futhi kusho okuningi ngokubambisana kwenhloso aphefumulelwe nesibindi sabo sokuphela kwesigameko.

Isikhathi esingaqondile

Uhlelo oluhle kakhulu lwezenzo azenzile olulethe impumelelo kwakuwukuthumela umlayezo kuhulumeni owenza umhlangano ukuzoxoxisana nokuphela kobandlululo nokuguqulwa kweNingizimu Afrika ibe yintando yeningi. Isikhathi sasingenakulinganiswa.

Izigwebo ezibhekene nezwe zilimaza umnotho futhi zihlukanisa iNingizimu Afrika ekuthuthukisweni kwezobuchwepheshe nokuxhumana okunomthelela kwamanye amazwe; ngaphakathi, ukuphikisana nomsebenzi wokulwa nobubandlululo,kwakukhona ukudikila kanye nemiboniso kwakulimaza ukuphathwa futhi inqubomgomo ye-ANC yokwenza izwe elingenakunqotshwa kwaba ngaphezulu ngokoqobo nsuku zonke. Kukhona ukuqhuma okuqhubekayo kobudlova.

Ngaphambi kwenkohliso ye apartheid, ukusungulwa kweNational Party kwakungabi nakakhulu futhi kungaqiniseki. Izigebengu zamabhunu ezazisebenzisana nohulumeni ngasese, i-Afrikaner Broederbond, okusuke kusukela ekuqhudeni kokuqala kweNationalists kwakhiwe inqubomgomo futhi yasiza ukuyisebenzisa ngokuyala amalungu ayo eKhabhinethi nakwezinye izindawo eziyinhloko, yayizokwenza okubalulekile isinqumo - ukuqeda ubandlululo.

Translated by Nsika Khoza