Ibanjwa elingu Mandela ngoku bhalwa ngu Raymond Louw

Igunya Lokuziphatha

©Eric Miller

Unyulo luka 1994 lwaphelisa ulawulo lwabantu abamhlophe lweminyaka engamakhulu amathathu anamashumi amane, nesibini (342), amadoda awayecinga okokuba ubumhlophe babo nabazi nzalelwane zase Europe zazibanikeza igunya lokulawula ngaphandle kokuthethisana nezigidi gidi zabantu abamnyama ababehlala eMzantsi Afrika.

Utshintsho lwalumangalisa ngenxa yendlela uxolo olwenzeka ngayo, emveni kokuba ibhombo zaziyekile, kwaye nange nxayokuba lo owenza okuninzi okuba konke oku kwenzeka wayengumzekelo. uMzabalalazo wawuthe gqolo ngemeko neziganeko. Kwakunzima ukucinga elinye ibanjwa elalichitha isigwebo sentambo entolongweni, kwilizwe elilawulwa ngamabhulu engena mandla ngaphandle kwegunya lokuziphatha kwesicelo sakhe.

Ukususela kwezingxoxo zingaqhelekanga, ibanjwa elingu Mandela labonisa inkokheli zezopolitiko okokuba zingene kwizivumelwano nabaninzi abamnyama ukuphelisa ucalucalulo. Ezike zizinto zamaphupho engenzekiyo- indoda enye, esekubophelelekeni, inesibindi sokuxelela abavaleli bakhe okokuba bancame amandla ababenawo kwinto ebinokubanesiphumo esinye: ukunikeza igunya kubantu abeba cinezela.

Ukugxothwa Kwengxwaba Ngxwaba Eluntwini

Elinye icebo yayikokuba imbali yayisoloko ikubhengeza:ukuba kwenzekani, de amacala omabini asondele ekuzitshabalaliseni ngemfazwe, eshiya abo baphumeleleyo bajongane nomsebenzi wokuphatha ngelixa bezama ukokha ilizwe elichithakeleyo. Abantu base Mzantsi Afrika abazizigidi eziyi 40 balekela lomini, ngenxa yesibindi, ukuzimisela, umbono kunye nendlela ewayeyiyo owayesakuba libanjwa uNelson Mandela.

Ngokungena mathandabuzo lowo wayengu Mongameli uFrederik Willem De Klerk waye nguye obalulekileyo kuko konke oku. Kodwa uDe Klerk wayefunde zonke izibonakalisi. Wayeyazi okokuba urhulumente uqhubekeka nocalucalulo nocinezelo ilizwe lizakuthi lihluleke phakathi, ngokwezimali, emveni koko ibeyingxuba kaxaka eluntwini.

I-Alcatraz yoMzantsi Afrika

Owayelibanjwa uMandela wazisa kwingxoxo indlela owayezifunde eluvalelweni zokuxoxa. wathi ke wano lawulo olumangalisayo kwisiqu sakhe, akalibala eyona nto ayilwelayo wasebenzisa kwathuba alifumanayo wafunda. Wayi Nkonkeli kwi Alcatraz yoMzantsi Afrika entolongweni iRobben Island.

Indoda eyakhuthaza amanye amabanjwa okokuba afunde, ebaxelela okokuba bafunde , bakhe imizimba nengqondo zabo. Wayekwazi ke ukumamela incoko zezopolitiko ezichaselene nezakhe kwanye ezisa imvisiswano phakathi kwamanye amabanjwa. Wayehlonitshwa kakhulu ngamanye amabanjwa embona nje ngomfanekiso wenkululeko abayilwelayo.

Phantsi koku khokhelwa nguye, amabanjwa afunda indlela zokunxulumana odwa, kunye nenkokheli ze ANC ezaziselubhacweni phesheya kwe lwandle. Ngezindlela zabo babekwazi uku ukuxelelana okwenzekayo kwezo politiko “ngaphandle”. Wabhala incwadi yakhe ethi “Long Walk to Freedom” ngolwimi lwase Mzini ethi uhambo olude oluya enkululekweni. Eyabhalwa kancinci ngamanye amabanjwa de yashicilelwa ngu Mac Maharaj.

Umhlaba waba Mnyama Ozimeleyo

Urhulumente wazama ukumvala umlomo ngokumthembisa ngoku mkhulula - ngonyaka ka 1970s- befuna okokuba avume indawo eyayisaziwa ngokokuba “yindawo yabamnyama ezimeleyo” yase Transkei kwaye naye aphelele khona. Ukuba wayevumile, wayezakuba uyayivuma “ingcinezelo enkulu”, umthetho wokwahlukanisa ilizwe ngokwe zizwe zakwa xhosa, apho abamnyama “bebezakuzi phatha”.

uMandela zange avume kwaphela. Urhulumente wakuncama oku, kodwa ngonyaka ka 1980 baphinda bazama ukumhenda ngokumkhulula okokuba angayeka udushe. Waphendula wathi “Amabanjwa awatyikityi zivumelwano” kwaye wabeka izinyanzeliso zokuba urhulumente ahlukane nokuhlukumeza abamnyama.

Babe mhenda kakhulu ngoba wayesele esentolongweni iminyaka engamashumi amababini lo ka Mandela. Kwabekwa nakwamanye amabanjwa oku kwakuthenjiswe uMandela, kodwa ngenxa yomanyano nobumbano ngenjongo uMandela wabenza bangavumi nabo, umnye kuphela owawa ekundeni.

Ixesha Elilungileyo

Ukufunyanwa kwakhe kukujijeka komzimba, kwathumela umyalezo kurhulumente efuna ukungena kwingxoxo zokuphelisa ucalucalulo nokutshintshwa ko Mzantsi Afrika uye kwi nkululeko. Ixesha lalilungile.

Ukungavumeleki koMzantsi Afrika kumazwe athile, ayetshabalalisa ezo rhwebo zelizwe ikhupha uMzantsi Afrika ecaleni ekunyukeni kwezo buchwephesha nokudibana namazwe aphesheya; ngaphakathi kwelizwe, nezenzo ezichasene nocalucalulo zazingajiki, uvalelo nokubonisa zaziqhwalelisa impatho yemithetho ye ANC yokwenza ilizwe lingalawuleki kwakusenzeka yonke imihla eliphupha lalifezekiseka. Kwakukho udushe olwaluvuka rhoqo.

Ngapha ko calucalulo ngobuhlanga obabuzifihlile buzenzisa, iNational Party yayingonwabanga kwaphela. Ibhulu elalise mfihlakalweni lingungqondongqondo ibhulu uBroederbond owazama ukwenza imithetho eyalela amalungu we khabinethi nezinye izikhundla ezibalulekileyo, wayesenza okulungileyo nezigqibo ezilungileyo - zokuphelisa ucalucalulo ngobuhlanga.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie