Abahlali Bokuqala eMapungubwe

Ojeke Abahle! Izitsha Zebumba Noqobo Lwayo

©Roger de la Harpe
Indlela yokuphila yendabuko yase-Afrika yayivame ukuhleleka kahle futhi ingakhathazi imvelo.

Yingakho imiphakathi yokuqala yaBantu ishiye ngemuva izinsalela ezimbalwa ezibonakalayo ukuze sizithole namhlanje. Lokhu kungakhungathekisa kakhulu abavubukuli nabazisi bezomlando wezwe abazama ukuqoqa ndawonye umlando wethu ongabhalwanga.

Kodwa kukhona into eyodwa eveze kakhulu ekuboneni nasekuthandeni amasiko ahlukahlukene ase-Afrika – ukubumba izitsha.

Ngesikhathi amahambuma, afana neSan, bengadingi ujeke nezimbiza ezinzima eziphukayo, aBantu ababehlala ndawonye bakha inani elikhulu lalezi zitsha zokugcina amanzi nokusanhlamvu.

Ngenhlanhla, ubumba luvame ukuhlala isikhathi eside, ngisho nalapho luphukile noma lulahlwa endaweni yokulahlwa kwemfucuza.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, abantu bosiko oluhlukene bafaka izimbiza zabo ngokudweba okuhlukile, amaphethini kanye nemiklamo, njengonxantathu, nomudwa otshekile.

Indawo Yegama

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngakho-ke, ngokuhlaziya imihlobiso ehlukene kanye nesimo samachashazi asaphila, sinendlela yokuhlukanisa nokulandelana kwezizwe ezahlukene. Singaphinde sisebenzise ubufakazi bokubumba ukuze sibone ukufinyeleleka kwezwe, siko nasiko. Ngakho amabhodo abunjiwe afakazelwa ukuthi amathuluzi aligugu labavubukuli.

Eqinisweni, njengoba singenalo irekhodi lamagama abo okuqala, iziningi zezizwe zakudala manje zikhonjiswe kuphela ngokuma nokuhlobisa kwabakubumbile.

Kunalokho okungaqondakali, imihlangano yezinto zokuvubukula iveza ukuthi amagama anikezwa 'amasiko okubumba' ahlukene avame ukuvela epulazini noma indawo lapho kutholakala khona isitayela sebumbi. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi Indawo yegama.

Ngichaze ngajula lesi simiso ukuze uqonde ukuthi kungani eziningi zalezi zindawo zomphakathi zaBantu zijabulile kodwa zinamagama angajwayelekile, njenge-Siko lokuphumula ujabulile, abazwakala sengathi baqhuba indawo yokuphumula.

Imiphakathi Yokuqala Yensimbi (200 AD - 900 AD)

©Roger de la Harpe
Ukuqapha kwaBantu abafukela kwenye izwe kwafika eningizimu ye-Afrika ngo200 AD. Balethe ubuchwepheshe obusha, njengokusebenza kwensimbi, futhi lokhu kubhekwa njengesiqalo sokusebenza kwensimbi eningizimu ye-Afrika. Omunye wemiphakathi ye-Bantu ebonakalayo yokuqala ukuhlala emgodini waseLimpopo-Shashe yilokho okuthiwa yi-Siko Lokuphumula ujabulile. Lesi sizwe, kanye nabanye njengoGokomere, kubonakala sengathi bahlala endaweni phakathi kuka-350 no-450 AD. Okuncane kakhulu kwaziwa ngalezi zinsuku zokuqala zensimbi ngaphandle kokuba zenze ingxube yokukhula kwezitshalo, ukuzingela kanye nokulima.

Khona-ke, phakathi kuka-600 no-900 AD, kubonakala sengathi bonke abalimi bashiya iShashe-eLimpopo. Lokhu kungenzeka ukuthi isimo sezulu sashintsha futhi isifunda sasingasavumi ukulima. Ingxenye yezwe enesimo semvelo nezulu esingacacile ihlezi phakathi kokuzalisa kanye nesomiso, futhi ukushintsha kwamaphethini emvula kungabulala impucuko. Lesi sigaba sokushintsha kwenkathi esomile nesamanzi kungaba umshayeli obalulekile ekushintsheni kokuhlaliseka nokuhamba kwabantu.

Ukuthuthukisa Amasiko Ezizwe

Nakuba kwakungekho okwenzeka kakhulu endaweni yaseMapungubwe phakathi nalesi sikhathi, amasiko amaningana angaziwa ayenziwa kwezinye izingxenye zezwe. Esinye isibonelo esithakazelisayo yizizwe ezingaqondakali ezenza amakhanda eLydenburg amangalisayo, atholakala eMpumalanga. Lezi zibukiso zifana nobuso bomuntu obuhlangene nesilwane, futhi akholelwa ukuthi asetshenziselwa imikhosi engcwele kanye nemikhosi yokuqala. Amakhanda eLydenburg akhonjiswe eMyuziyamu yaseNingizimu Afrika eKapa, ​Njalo okufanayo kusemnyuziyamu yendawo eLydenburg.

Translated by Nsika Khoza