Vatshami va Khale vale Mapungubwe

Majomela ya Kahle! - Swikhuwani na Vutitivi

©Roger de la Harpe
Ndlela ya ndzhavuko ya vutomi bya xi Afrika hixitalo yiva yiri kahle eka mbango. Leswi hiswona swinga endla leswaku vaaki vakhale va Bantu vasiye swilo swotala leswi khomekaka leswi hiswikumaka namuntlha. Leswi swinga pandzisa nhloko vanhu vati archaeologists nati historians lava ringetaka ku hlengeleta matimu lawa yoka yanga tsariwanga helo. Kambe kuna xilo xin’we lexi axi komba kupfuna eka vutitivi xikan’we naku languta minkarhi ya ndzhavuko wo hambana hambana wa xi Afrika – swikhuwani.

Kasi vafambi lava ava lavana na madyelo ya rihlaza ya swifuwo swavona, tani hi rixaka ra San, avangari na ntirho hi swilo swotika swofana na makhuwani, majomela na timbita, vaaki va Bantu ava endla switirhisiwa leswi kuva vata hlayisela mati na mbewu eka swona. Hinkateko, swikhuwani swa vumba switala kuvakona nkarhi woleha, hambi loko swifayiwile kumbe ku cukumetiwa tani hi thyaka kusala swirhengele. Kuyisa emahlweni, ndzhavuko wunwana na wunwana awu khavisa makhuwani ya wona hi ndlela yo hlawuleka yaku tsala, ku khavisa na maendlelo lawa yanga fanaka nati triangles, chevrons kumbe milayini leyi tsemakanyaka.

Vito ra Ndzhawu

©Roger de la Harpe
Se, hiku langutisa ntsena minkhaviso yohambana na swivumbeko swa swikhuwani leswinga sala, hina ndlela yaku swiveka kuya hi mintlawa kumbe ku landzelerisa kuya hi kuhambana ka tinxaka. Hinga tlhela hitirhisa swikhuwani leswi tani hi vumbhoni kuya hi vutshamo bya ndzhavuko wokarhi. Se swikhuwani leswi switikombe swinga pfuni nchumu eka ti archaeologists. Kahle kahle, tani hileswi kungariki na vumbhoni bya mavito yavona yosungula, tinxaka ta khale ati hambanyisiwa kuya hi xivumbeko na nkhaviso wa timbita na swikhuwani swavona.

Lexi hlamarisaka hileswaku, archaeology yihi byela leswaku vito leri nyikiwaka mavumbelo yanwana na yanwana ya xikhuwani kuya hi ndzhavuko switala ku kumiwa kuya hi purasi kumbe ndzhawu leyi xitayele xexo xikumekaka kona rosungula. Leswi swivuriwa vito ra ndzhawu. Ndzi yile emahlweni ndzi ringeta kuhlamusela maendlelo lawa leswaku mita twisisa leswaku hikokwalaho ka yini vaaki lava va khale va Bantu ava tsaka, kufana na ndzhavuko wa Happy Rest culture, lava ava twala onge va fambisa ndzhawu ya vuwiselo.

Vaaki va Khale (200 AD – 900 AD)

©Roger de la Harpe
Ku hlayisiwa ka xiyimo ka rixaka ra Bantu loko rifika laha Dzongeni wa Afrika kwalomuya kava 200 AD. Vafikile na thekinoloji yintshwa, kufana na kutirhiwa ka tinsimbhi naswona leswi swivikiwa kuva masungulo ya khale ka Dzonga wa Afrika. Xin’wana xa leswi kombekaka hi vanhu va Bantu lava ava tshama eka ndzhawu ya Limpopo-Shashe i ndzhawu yoka yinga thyiwangi kahle ya Happy Rest culture. Rixaka leri, xikan’we na tinxaka tinwana tofana na ndzhavuko wa Gokomere, vatikomba vahanyile eka ndzhawu liya kuva vatshame kona kuringana exikarhi ka 350 na 450 AD. Aku tiviwi swotala hita malembe lawa ya khale yava agro-pastoralists ehandle kaleswaku ava hanya hiku rima swibyariwa, kuhlota naku fuwa swifuwo.

Kutani, exikarhi ka 600 na 900 AD, switikomba onge vafuwi hinkwavo vasukerile ndzhawu ya Shashe-Limpopo. Leswi swingava swivangiwe hikuva maxelo ya cinca cinca ngopfu eka ndzhawu liya leswinga endla leswaku kungahavi ndzhawu yakahle kuva ku endliwa vurimi. Swilo swofana naleswi hiswona swi endlaka leswaku swiphemu swin’wana switikuma swiri na dyandza kumbe misava yiva yinonile xikan’we na ku cinca ka ndlela leyi mpfula yinaka hiyona leswi tlhelerisaka endzhaku nhluvuko. Ku cinca loku ko tsakama naku oma hiswona swiendlaka leswaku kuva na matshamelo yokarhi ya vanhu.

Ku Endliwa ka Ndzhavuko wa Tinxaka

Hambi leswi akungari na swotala leswi aswi humelela endzhawini ya Mapungubwe hinkarhi lowu, swinwana swo hlamarisa na mindzhavuko yoka yinga tiviwi ngopfu leyi ayirikona eka swiphemu swin’wana swa tiko. Xikombiso xinwana xotsakisa ixa vanhu vohlamarisa lawa vanga endla Lydenburg Heads leyi hlamarisaka,yikumeka e Mpumalanga.

Ti terracotta masks tikomba swikandza swa vanhu voka vanga helelangi, swivumbeko swa swiharhi swoka swinga helelangi, naswona kutshembiwa leswaku aswitirhisiwa eka mintirho ya ndzhavuko na ngoma. Lydenburg Heads tile ka nkombiso eka South African Museum in Cape Town, laha kungana swofana naswona eka museum wale kusuhi wale Lydenburg.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni