Abahlali Bexesha Langaphambili e-Mapungubwe

Ijagi Ezintle! – Umsebenzi Wezobumbo Kunye Nokuzazi

©Roger de la Harpe
Indlela yase Afrika yesintu ibiyiyo esebenzisana nendalo iphinde ikwazi ukuvelisa ukutya kwendalo Yiyo lonto umphakathi wa-Bantu washiya izinto ezibonakalayo ukuze zifunywane sithi namhlanje.

Lonto ikhe iphazamise abantu abafunda ngezinto zakudala kunye nababhali bembali abazama ukudibanisa imbali yethu le engabhalwanga ezincwadini. Kodwa kukhona into enye ebalulekileyo ekuboneni nasekuchazeni iindidi zamasiko ase Afrika – umsebenzi wezobumbo.

Abahambi, abafana nabantu be-San, bebengena msebenzi weembiza kunye neejagi ezinzima okanye iimbiza ezophukayo, aba-Bantu benze iqela elinininzi lemikhumbi yokugcina amanzi kunye neenkonzo.

Ngethamsanqa, umsebenzi wokubumba ngodongo uvamise ukunamathela, noba sowuphukile okanye ulahlwe emgqomeni.

Ukongeza, isiko ngalinye belithanda ukubhala iimbiza zawo ngombhalo oxinzelelweyo, ipatheni kunye noyilo, olufana nonxathathu, i-chevrons kunye nemigca exwesileyo.

Igama Lendawo

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngokuhlola imihombiso eyahlukileyo nesimo sengceba sobumbo olushiyekileyo, sinendlela yokwahlula neyoku landelelanisa iintlanga ezahlukileyo. Siyakwazi ukusebenzisa ubungqina bobumbo ukuxela imvelaphi yamasiko wezintlanga. Ingceba zobumbo lubonisile ukuba lusisixhobo esibaluleke kakhulu kubantu abafunda ngezinto ngezakudala. Enyanisweni, akukho rekhodi lamagama wazo wemvelaphi, iintlanga ezininzi zakudala zibonwa ngesimo nomhombiso womsebenzi wobumbo.

Into engaqhelekanga, iindibano zabantu abafunda ngezinto zakudala zichaza ukuba igama ‘amasiko obumba’ lisuka kwigama lefama okanye indawo apho olubumbo luqale lwafumaneka khona. Lento ibizwa i-‘Igama Lendawo’. Ndiyenzulu ekuchazeni lenkqubo ukuze wazi isizathu sokuba kutheni uninzi lweendawo za-Bantu zinamagama amnandi, njenge Happy Rest Culture, evakala ingathi ligama lendawo yokuphumla.

Kwimimandla Yoluntu Lwasekuqaleni Kwixesha Lentsimbi (200 AD – 900 AD)

©Roger de la Harpe
Imfuduko ya-Bantu ifike eMzantsi Afrika pha exesheni le 200 AD. Babephethe ubuchwephetshe obutsha, obufana nesinyithi, kwaye lento yaziwa njengesiqalo sexesha lokuqala lentsimbi eMzantsi Afrika. Owona mphakathi wokuqala ukuhlala ngakumlambo wase Limpopo-Shashe ngulo unegama elingaqhelekanga i-‘Happy Culture Rest’ Uluntu lwa-Bantu bokuqala Oluhlanga, kunye nezinye zamasiko ase-Gokomere, zibonakakala zihlale kulendawo kangange xesha eliyi 350 ukuya 450 AD. Kuncinci okwaziwayo mayela ngomelusi kunye nabalimi bexesha lentsimbi, ngaphandl kokuba bebedibanisa ukukhulisa izityalo, ukuzingela kunye nokufuya imfuyo.

Phakathi kwe 600 kunye ne 900 AD, kubonakala ukuba abalimi bashiye umlambo we-Shashe-Limpopo. Lento ibangelwe kukutshintsha kwemozulu kwaye nendawo ibichasene nezolimo. Elicala lelizwe lisoloko liwela phakathi kwendawo echumileyo nendawo yembalela, futhi nokutshintsha kwepatheni yemvula akulunganga. Olutshintsho lwamaxesha afumileyo kunye nawomiyelo lungalulo oluqhuba ekulungiseni ipatheni yendawo.

Uphuhliso Lwenkcubeko yeNtlanga

Nangona kungekho nto eninzi ebisenzeka ngelixesha e-Mapubungwe, amasiko weentlanga eziqhelekang nangaziwayo ebekhula kwezinye indawo zomhlaba. Umzekelo omangalisayo ngowabantu bemfihlo, ababesenza iminqwazi ebizwa i-Lydenburg Heads, ebifumaneka e-Mpumalanga. Ezimaski zeterracota zibonisa ubuso obufani bezidalwa ezinesiqingatha somntu nesilwanyana, kukholelwa ukuba bezisetyenziswa kwizithethe ezingcwele naxa kusolukwa. i-Lydenburg Heads zikumboniso pha kwindawo yolondolozo i-South African Museum eKapa, amawele wazo afumaneka kwindawo yolondolozo yomphakathi wase Lydenburg.

Translated by Aviwe Damane