Welwitschia

© Thomas Schoch

Igama

Welwitschia [Welwitschia mirabilis]

Isaziso

“Kucacile ukuba siso isityalo esimangalisayo apha emhlabeni futhi ikwasiso nesimbi kakhulu.” Le yayimpendulo ka-Regius Keeper wase Royal Botanic Garden, e-Kew, ngonyaka u 1863, apho wayinikwe esisityalo khona. Lomthi awuqhelekanga ngenxa yamagqabi wayo amakhulu, akhula ngokuqhubelekayo phantsi emhlabeni.

Ngexesha lawo lokuphila, isityalo ngasinye sikhupha amagqabi amabini qha, ahlukanyiswa ngamacala amaninzi ngenxa yamagqabi aphephethekiswa ngumoya. Kuthiwa eminye imthi mikhulu kwaye ineminyaka eyi 1500 ubudala.

Inkcazelo

Lomthi waziwa njengenqaba okanye ‘umthi ongafani nawo wonke umthi emhlabeni’. Mfutshane, unenkuni futhi unengcambu ezingekho emsebeni enamagqabi amabini akhula ezantsi kuyo yonke impilo yomthi, lonto iyaphithanisa futhi abenkenenkene amagqabi walomthi.

I-Stomata senzeka kuwo omabini amagqabi. Indawo yeenkuni yenzeka kwindawo zamagqabi omabini. Ingcambu yokhuni yanda ngenxa yokukhula. Amasebe akhupha amahlumelo akhula pha ecaleni kwamagqabi. I-kona ezifana no-Ephedra ziyavela zihamba ngamaqela amayi 2-3 ecaleni kwesebe. Kuqhelekile ukuba imbewu ikhule kodwa iphinde isasazwe nangumoya.

Impawu zamagqabi

Amagqabi aphile ixesha elide kumbuso wezityalo, kwaye asoloko eluhlaza ehamba odwa, made kwaye ambaca. Elona gqabi elingazange lophuka lalinganiselwa kwi-sm eziyi 179. Eligqabi lalinobude obungange mitha eziyi 6 kunye ne mitha eziyo 3.15 zempilo yangaphakathi. Umphandle weligqabi ubunceda umthi ukwazi ukuphila xa ilanga litshisa njenge 65 ‘C.

Igqabi ligcina umhlaba epholile kway efumileng ngaphantsi. Amagqabi akhula enyakeni kangange sm eziyi 13.8. Ngenxa yalonto lomthi ukhupha iimitha eziyi 150 zamagqabi emva kwexesha elingange minyaka engamawaka ayi 1000. Amagqabi akhula abe ngqindilili kangane 1.4 cm. Amagqabi awela phantsi akhusela umoya ovuthuzayo.

Ukungena kwamanzi kuyamangaza, kuba elihlobo lwegqabi luyaphila noba imeko imaxongo. I-stomata sihlala sivulekile ide iqabaka imke, futhi namanzi sekethene nca namagqabi. Ayifani neminye imithi, i-stomata siyavula xa imeko zimanzi, iphinde ivale xa kushushu. Lento yenza ukuba akho manzi avalelekile xa ilanga litshisa emini.

Indawo

Lomthi ukhula pha kwintlango yeNamib, eyona ntlango endala kwaye enemeko ezimaxongo nezomileyo ukuya pha kwintshona yase Namibia ukuya pha elunxwemeni lomzantsi-ntshona eAngola.

Lenginqi ayinethelwa enyakeni futhi imvula ilinganiselwa pha kwi milimitha eziyi 100 enyakeni. Iintlobo ezifana nalomthi zifumaneka kubude obungange 80cm ukuya elunxwemeni, iqabaka yiyo esisondlo.

Amagqabi akhula ngokwe zinga elilingana ne sentimitha eziyi 8-15 pha kwizityalo ezindala, ezinye zifunyanwa zinomlinganiselo onobunzai obungange mitha eziyi 1.8 kunye nobubude obungange khilomitha eziyi 50 kwimpuma yase Swakopmund ukuya pha e-Khan nakwimilambo ye-Swakop.

Imvelaphi

Isityalo sokuqala salomthi safunyanwa ngunogadi wase Astria uFriedrick Welwitsch (1806-1872) kunyaka ka 1860 kwintlango yase Namib kumazantsi ase Angola. Esisityalo sathiywa emba ko Frredrich kuba nguye owenza uphando lwalomthi olwaba yimpumelelo kuba wawufumana waphinda wawuqokelela kuqala lomthi.

u-Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch (1806-1872)

u-Friedrich Welwitsch wazalwa e-Austria apho wayesebenza njengo mgxexi wemidlalo yase qongeni. Wahamba emva kwethutyana waya e-Portugal apho asebenze khona njengo mntu oqokelela iizityalo.

Emva kweminyaka eminzi wathunyelwa e-Angola ngurhulumente wama Phothukezi apho waqokelela khona izityalo ezingaphezu kwamawaka ayi 5000 kwiminyaka eyi 12 ayichithe kulolizwe. Ezinye bezintsha kwisayensi yeloxesha futhi bezinolwazi olubalukileyo. Xa ebuyela e-Angola, u-Welwitsch wakhetha ukuhlala e-London kufutshane ne Natural History Museum kunye ne Royal Botanical Gardens.

Wasebenza wade wayobhubha ngonyaka u 1872. Emva kokusweleka kwakhe, urhulumente wama Phothukezi (ikwanguwo oxhase inqokelela yakhe) athatha abantu ababephathe ilifa lakhe kwamantyi, kuba babefuna ukubuyisela wonke umsebenzi wolwazi lwakhe.

URhulumente wamaPhothukezi wafumana nawo kumsebenzi wakhe wokuqala, i-Natural History Museum yona yafumana inqokelela yesibini yomsebenzi wakhe. U-Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch ungcwatywe e-Kensal Green Cemetery e-London. Ingcwaba lakhe lihonjiswe ngumbhalo we-Welwitschia.

Impawu zasendle

Kwakukhe kwakholelwa ukuba isinambuzane esaziwa nge-Welwitschia Bug [Probergrothius sexpunctatis] esiphila phakathi kwalomthi siso esincedisa uxwembu lwesityalo, kodwa lonto iphindwe yajikwa. Esisinambuzane siphila ngokutya incindi yesityalo esibizwa i-Welwitschia.