Welwitschia

© Thomas Schoch

Vito

Welwitschia [Welwitschia mirabilis]

Manghenelo

Aswivutisiwi leswaku lexi I ximilani xosaseka ngopfu lexi nga tshama xitisiwa laha tikweni kambe hixinwana lexi welaka eka leswo biha. Leswi I nhlamulo ya Regius Keeper wale Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in 1863 loko a hlamusela hi ximilani lexi e Welwitschia mirabilis.

Ximilani lexi axitolovelekangi kuya hileswi xinga lehisa swona, matluka ya nsinya lowu ya lala onge kova mabandi lawa ya kulaka kuya fikela ehansi. Eka vutomi bya nsinya lowu hinkwabyo wuva wuri na matluka mambirhi ntsena. Matluka lawa ya hatlaka ya hlakatiwa hiku biwa hi moya. Kuya hi matsalwa yahlamusela leswaku minsinya leyi yisukela kule swinene kuya fika kwalomu ka 1500 wa malembe.

Nhlamuselo

Nsinya lowu awu dzudzi matluka ya wona naswona wuna timintsu to koma na tshindi rakona rikomile. Nsinya lowu wahlamarisa swinene kutlula minsinya leyo tala.

Wuna ntsandza wokoma swinene wopfumala marhavi wuva na matluka mambirhi lawa ya fanaka na mabandi lawa ya milaka eka ndzhawu yokarhi ya nsinya kuringana vutomi bya wona hinkwabyo laha ya songanaka loko malembe yakarhi ya famba.

Stomata yiva kona laha kusungulaka matluka. Tshindi rakona rikula kuya hi malembe laha rifikaka eka 1 m laha kutlelaka kuhuma swirhabyani leswingata humesa mbewu. Swirhabyani leswi swihuma laha kusungulaka matluka laha swihumelelaka himintlawa yoringana 2-3 eka rhavi rinwe.

Hintolovelo kova na mbewu yinwe leyi humaka eka cone leyi mbewu ya kona yi hangalasa hi moya.

Nhlamuselo ya tluka

Matluka ya nsinya lowu hiwona ya hanyaka vutomibyo leha eka swimilani kumbe eka rixaka ra minsinya naswona yatshama yari rihlaza, ya huma yari mambirhi ya anama no phambarhala. Tluka rinwe loko ringa tshovekangi ripimiwe kuva 179 sm.

Tluka leri ariri 6 m hiku leha laha kwalomu ka 3.15 wa timitara akuri laha ku hanyaka. LAha hansi ka tluka leri kusirhelela nsinya lowuwu pona eka kuhisa kumbe kutitimela ka misava laha kufikaka eka 65 'C. Matluka lawa ya endla leswaku misava leyinga e hansi ka rona yititimela notshama yirikarhi yitsakama.

Matluka yakona yatshama yarikarhi ya kula hikwalomu ka 13,8sm.Nsinya lowu wukota kuva na matluka lawa ya lehaka 150 wa timitara endzhaku ka kwalomu ka 1000 wa malembe.
Matluka yakona yatala kuva eka 1.4 cm hikubumbula.Matluka lawa yakokaka e hansi yatlhela yasivela ku khukhuriwa ka misava hi moya. Eka xiyimo xinwana na xinwana matluka lawa yatshama yanga ninginiki.

Ku kumiwa ka mati hi tshindi switekiwa tani hileswi tsakisaka swinene naswona hiswona swiendlaka leswaku nsinya lowu wu hanya nlkarhi woleha. Kuna xivandla lexi tshamaka xipfulekileleswaku wuta kuma mati hambi loko mberha yi hundzile. Stomata xa nsinya lowu xiva xipfulekile loko kuri na xirhami kambe xipfaleka loko ku hisa. Leswi swi endla leswaku mati yanga hahi loko ya twa kuhisa ka dyambu.

Ndhawu

Nsinya lowu wukumeka emananga yofana nale Namib Desert laha kutivekaka tani hi mananga yak hale yalaha misaveni lawa ya tivekaka hiswiyimi swa wona lawa ya kokaka kuya evupela dyambu bya Namibia swifamba hile lwandle kuya edzongeni vupela dyambu bya Angola. Tindhawu leti tikuma swimpfulana sworingana 100 mm hi lembe.

Kasi yinwana yikumeka kwalomu ka 80km kusuka e lwandle laha kungana nkungwa leswinga vulaka leswaku nkungwa hiwona wu endlaka leswaku kuva na mati. Matluka ya kula hi nhlayo yo ringana 8-15 cm/yr eka nsinya lowukulu laha yinwana yinga kumiwa yiri na kwalomu ka 1,8m hiku anama na 6,2m hiku leha laha kuhlayeleriwaka malembe yo ringana 500- 1000.

Swikambelwana swotala swiendliwe eka mananga yopfuleka kwalomu ka 50 km evuhumadyambu bya Swakopmund nale vuhuma dyambu bya Khan na nambu wa Swakop.

Matimu

Ekusunguleni nsinya louy wukumeke rosungula hi Mu-Australia Friedrich Welwitsch (1806-1872) hi 1860 e mananga ya Namib e dzongeni wa Angola. Nsinya lowu wuvuye wuthyiwa vito ra Friedrich hikuva vatekela enhlokweni no xixima mu Australia eka ntirho lowu wo xonga swonghazi nova kuve yena anga kuma nsinya lowu no endla vulavisisi.

Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch (1806-1872)

Friedrich Welwitschuvelekiwe a Australia laha anga tirha malembe nyana e theatre critic. Laha ekuheteleleni uvuye a rhurhela e Portugal laha anga fika a tirha tani hi muhlengeleti wa swimilani.

Endzhaku ka malembe nyana uvuye a yisiwa e Angola hi mfumo wa maphutukezi laha anga vuya a hlengeleta kutlula 5000 eka malembe ya 12 lawa anga tshama etikweni leriya. Yinwani ayiri yintshwa swinene kasmbe ayiri na vuxokoxoko bya nkoka.

Loko atava avuye e Angola ufike a tshama e London lahaakuri kusuhi na Natural History Museum nale Royal Botanical Gardens. U tirhe kona kufikela loko ata hundza emisaveni hi 1872. Endzhaku ka rifu ra yena mfumo wa Portugal wuvuye wu teka va averi va rifuwo ra yena e khoto kuva ku kumeka swimilani hinkwaswo leswi aswi hlengeletile.

Endzhaku kaloko khoto yiteke nkarhi woleha kwalomu ka malembe yanharhu kuvuye ku tekiwa xiboho xaleswaku mfumu wa Portugal wukumayinwana minkandziyiso laha Natural History Museum yikuma swinwana. Dr. Friedrich Welwitscha lahliwa e Kensal Green Cemetery e London. Ribye ra yena ra xitsundzuxo rikhavisiwa hiku tsariwaleswi Welwitschia.

Swo switiva

Switshame swi ehleketiwa leswaku akuri na xitsotswana lexi axikumeka eka nsinya lowu lexi axi hehliwa hikuva xihangalasa mbewu ya nsinya lowu kambe sweswo swivuye swikanetiwa. Xitsotswana lexi ahi xifufunhunu kambe I xitsotswana xa mampela lexi kumaka swakudya swaxona eka nsinya lowu.