Welwitschia

© Thomas Schoch

Igama

Welwitschia [Welwitschia mirabilis]

Isingeniso

"Akubuzwa bonyana similo esihlangana neemilo ezikarisa khulu esalethwa enarheni le, begodu sihlangane nezimbi khulu" Le yipendulo ka-Regius Keeper we-Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, ngeminyaka yabo-1863 nebegade athula isimililo se-Welwitschia mirabilis. I-Welwitschia mirabilis ziimilo ezingakajayeleki ngobukhulu bazo, zinamakari amade akhula njalo ehlabathini.

Ubuphilo baso boke, isimilo ngasinye sikhiqiza amakari amabili kwaphela, nekuvame bonyana ahlukaniseke ngeenqhema ngebananga lokuphetjhulwa mumoya. Indlela yokuqagela iminyaka engaphilwa similo (Carbo-14 datings) yeentjalo ezikulu iveze bonyana ezinye zazo zineminyaka engaphezu kwe-1500 yobudala.

Ihlathululo

Isimilwesi i-Welwitschia mirabilis simhlobo wesimilo esibanobulili nesihlala simajadu unyaka woke ngesiqu esisodwa kanye nemirabhu emide.

Ukudlula lapho, isimilwesi sivamise ukuhlathululwa njenge nge-'bizarre', 'weird',(isimilo esingakajayeleki) nofana 'isimilo esihlukileko kuneemilo ezaziwako zomhlaba' Sifitjhani, sisigodo, isiqu sawo esinganamagatja sibambene namakari amabili amade amila ukusuka esithomeni saso ubuphilo besimilwesi boke, ayasongana bekayaqhaqhuluka ngokudlula kwamasentjhuri.

I-Stomata itholakala phezu kwawo womabili amakari. Isiqu sawo esisigodo sinaba ngokuya ngokuluphala kwaso sigcine sele sisongane okurondo ngebanga elingaba yimitha ngokuvundla, ukusuka lapho sivamise ukumila amagatja ahlukaniseka kabili asebenza kwaphela njengendlela yokupha iputjhana yamatlhurhelo embewini.

Amatlhurhelo wamagatja la amila ukusuka esithomeni samakari la. Iputjhana yamatlhurhelo yombala obomvu, itshwaya lawo we-Ephedra, avela ngeenqhema ezimbili ukuya kezintathu. Kuvame bonyana kube nembewu eyodwa ngaphakathi kwesikhwanyana esimumatha imbewu bese isabalilaliswe mumoya.

Ubunjalo/ isakhiwo samakarawo

Amakari la aphile isikhathi eside khulu eembusweni weemilo, ahlala ahlaza ngaso soke isikhathi, akhamba ngamabili kwaphela begodu anabile begodu asipara. Ububanzi bamakari angakaphuki bubalelwa ku-179 sm. Ikareli begade limamitha asithandathu wobude kuthi amamitha ama-3.15 begade kumathitjhu aphilako.

Ububanzi obumbeswa makari la busiza isimilwesi bonyana sikghone ukujamelana nehlabathi yobujamo obutjhisa ngama-65 'C. Enza bonyana ihlabathi engaphasi kwesimilwesi ihlale ipholile begodu ithambile. Amakari la akhula qobe mnyaka, ngesilingani esingaba yi-13.8 sm. Lokhu kutjho bonyana isimilo sinye singakhiqiza amathitjhu wekari amamitha ama-150 ngesikhathi seminyaka engaba yi-1000.

Amakari la adege ngokulingeneko okuyi-1.4 cm. Amakari andlaleke phasi ehlabathini avikeleka nokuphetjhulwa mumoya. Nanyana kunobujamo obunamandla bomoya amakari abanzi abhalela phasi ngokuqina begodu akayindawo.

Ukubamba amanzi ngokusebenzisa iintunjana eziphezu kwamakari la kufuze kube yinto ekarisa khulu ngawo; begodu lokho kwenze bonyana umhlobo lo wesimilo ukghone ukujamelana nobujamo obunzima. Iintunjanezi zihlala zivulekile ukufikela lapho ikungu iphakama khona begodu naamanzi amanengi eziwabutheleleko atlelezela lapho kuvuleke khona lapho amanzi angena khona.

Lokhu kutshwaya umehluko kezinye iimilo ngokuthi iintunjanezi zivuleke kwaphela ngaphasi kobujamo lapho ikukungu iphasi khona bese ivale nakutjhisa khudlwana. Lokhu kuqinisekisa bonyana akekho amanzi arhwamukako nakutjhisako.

Indawaso

Isimilwesi i-Welwitschia sidabuka e-Namib Desert, nekulirhalawumba elihlangana nalidala khulu umhlaba zombelele elinobujamo obudluleleko bokoma ukuyela etjhingalanga ye-Namibia ukugega neligu ukuyokufika esewulatjhingalanga yencenye ye-Angola. Indawo le ayifumani izulu keminye iminyaka kanye nesilinganiso esingaphasi kwamamilimitha alikhulu ngonyaka.

Imihlobayo eminengi itholakala khulu ebangeni elingaba makhilomitha amasumi abunane weligu lapho kunekungi khona, kanti-ke lokhu kuhlongoza bonyana ikungu iqakathekile ekuthambiseni isimilwesi. Amakaraso akhula ngezinga elimasenthimitha abunane ukuya kalisumi nahlanu qobe nyaka eemilweni esele zikhule ngokulingeneko, ezinye zazo zikhe zatholakala zinamakari wamamitha ayi-1.8 wobubanzi kanye ne-6.2 m wobude. Lokhu kuhlongoza bonyana singaba neminyaka yobudala ema-500-1000.

Ukutjhejwa okunengi kwenziwe khulu ngomhlobo obizwa nge-Welwitschia Fläche, wamarhalawumba amabala, angaba makhilomitha amasumi amahlanu epumalanga ye-Swakopmund kanye nepumalanga lapho imilambu emibili i-Khan kanye ne-Swakop rivers itjhinga khona.

Umlando

Isimilo sokuthoma se-Welwitschia satholwa ngumakekere ngeemilo u-Friedrich Welwitsch we-Australia (1806-1872) ngomyaka ka-1860 e-Namib desert encenyeni esesewula ye-Angola. Isimilwesi sathiyelelwa ngaye u-Friedrich njengendlela yokumhlonipha ngokuphumelela erhubhululweni lakhe leemilo begodu nangokuthi waba mbutheleli nomtholi waso wokuthoma.

Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch (1806-1872)

U-Friedrich Welwitsch wabelethelwa enarheni ye-Australia lapho asebenza khona isikhathi eside njenge-theatre critic. Kuthe ngokukhamba kwesikhathi watjhinga e-Portugal lapho wathoma ukusebenza njengombutheleli weemilo.

Kuthe ngemva kweminyaka eembalwa wathunyelwa enarheni ye-Angola athunywa mbuso wama-Purtuguese lapho wabuthelela ngaphezu kweenkulungwana ezihlanu ngesikhathi esiminyaka elisumi nambili ayihlezi enarheni leyo. Ezinye zazo begade zizitjha khulu esayensini ngaleso isikhathi begodu begade zimumethe ilwazi elinengi eliqakathekileko.

U-Welwitsch uthe nakabuya e-Angola wakhetha ukuhlala e-London ukuze ahlale eduze ne-Natural History Museum kanye ne-Royal Botanical Gardens. Usebenze lapho ukufikela lapho ahlongakala khona ngomnyaka ka-1872.

Ngemva kokufa kwakhe umbuso wama-Portuguese (nebegade kungiwo ebegade usekele ibuthelelo lakhe ngokweemali) wadosela abaphathi bepahlakhe ekhotho ngemizamo yokulinga ukulawula nofana ukubulunga ibuthelelo lakhe. Kuthe ngemva kwepi yekhotho ethethe isikhathi eside, eyaraga iminyaka emithathu kwagcinwa sele kufinyelelwe esivumelwaneni - Umbuso wama-Portuguese wathola incenye yawo yokuthoma kwathi i-Natural History Museum yathola incenye yesibili.

UDorhodera u-Friedrich Welwitsch wabulungwa emathuthuneni we-Kensal Green Cemetery e-London. Ilitje lesikhumbuzo sakhe lihlotjiswe ngethuthumbo le-Welwitschia.

Ibuthelelolwazi ngomangwawo

Kukhe kwacatjangwa bonyana inunwana ephila phakathi kwesimilwesi i-Welwitschia - yaziwa ngokuthi yi­-Welwitschia Bug [Probergrothius sexpunctatis] ngiyo begade yenza umsebenzi wokunothisa isimilwesi kodwana ilwazeli larhoqiswa belaphikiswa.

Inunwana ebizwa nge-Welwitschia Bug akusiyo ebizwa nge-beetle njengombana abanengi begade baqabanga kodwana yi-bug yamambala. Iphila ngokudla amanzana wesimilo se-Welwitschia.