Welwitschia

Ligama

Welwitschia (Welwitschia mirabilis)

Setfulo

Kuphumile embutweni ngesihlahla lesisimangaliso lesake saletfwa kulelive, futsi ngusinye saletimbi.’ Lenya bekuyimphendvulo yalobukete iRoyala Botanic Gardens, Kew, ngemnyaka kwa 1863 nakaniketwa lesihlahla se Welwitschia mirabilis. Tihlahla te Welwitschia mirabilis atatiwa ngalamacembe ato lamakhulu lakhula angacedzi emhlabatsini.

Kulesikhatsi semphilo yaso yonkhe, sinye sihlahla sikhokha emacembe lamabili, lavame kuhlukaniseka ngeticheme letinengi kungako lamacembe ashaywa ngumoya. Lekhabhoni – inesikhatsi lesilishumi nakune kwaletihlahla letinkhulu letikhombe kutsi letinye letihamba ngasinye tingetulu kwetinkhulungwane letilishumi nesihlanu ngemnyaka budzala.

Inchazelo

Welwitschia mirabilis sihlahla lesihlangene lesinemahlanga lamafisha netimphandze letindze. Ngetulu kwaloko, lesihlahla sichazeka ngekutsi ‘asikajwayeleki’ siyetfusa’, noma asifani njengaletinye tihlahla letatiwako la emhlabeni.’

Sifishane, sinetigodvo, luhlanga lolute emagala sinemacembe lemengatsi aboshelwe lakhula esisekelweni seluhlanga kuze kube yimphilo yonkhe yalesihlahla, acala kugobana/kuhlangana, futsi tingadzabuki ngekuhamba kweminyaka.

Timbobo tivela kuwo omabili emacembe langetulu. Lamahlanga latigodvo ayaluleka njalo nakakhula abelicembe lelipatalele naleligobile abelimitha, kusuka ekukhuleni kancane kwemagala lenta kugcina kukhokha imphova kanye nenhlanyelo lebanti ngaphansi lecijile ngetulu. Lamahlumela laphuma emagaleni avela eceleni kwesisekelo selicembe.

Inhlanyelo lebovu lebanti, ifana nalawo eEphedra, lavela ngemacembu lamabili kuya kumatsatfu kulinye ligala. Kuvame kutsi, yinye inhlanyelo lekhula kuyinye icone bese isakatwa ngumoya.

Imininingwane yelicembe

Lamacembe nguwona laphile sikhatsi lesidze endzaweni yetihlahla, ahlala aluhlata, incenye yinye futsi ahlala anwebekile futsi apatalele. Lelicembe lelivulekile lelingabulaleki likala likhulu nemashumi lasikhombisa nemfica nge sm. Leli licembe belingemamitha lasitfupha budze lekusho kutsi 3.15 wemamitha bekutincenye temtimba lebetiphila.

Lendzawo lengetulu levalwa ngulelicembe lelisita lesihlahla kutsi siphile ekushiseni lokusesihlabatsini lokungemashumi lasitfupha nesihlanu’ C. kugcina lesihlabatsi ngephansi kwalesihlahla sipholile futsi sifutfumele. Lamacembe akhula njalo ngemnyaka ngelinani lelingu 13.8 sm. Ngakoke lesihlahla singakhokha tincenye temacembe letilikhulu nemashumi lasihlanu ema mitha ngetulu kwekukhula iminyaka letinkhulungwane telishumi ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi.

Lamacembe anesilinganiso lesingu 1.4 cm ngebukhulu. Lamacembe lalala ngetulu kwemhlaba aphindze avikele kugamuka kwematje bese apheshulwa ngumoya. Ngisho nangephansi kwetiphepho letinemandla lamacembe labanti asala alukhuni futsi anganyakati. Kubambeka kwemanti kuletimbobo kungatsatseka ngekutsi kusimangaliso; lenandlela yalamacembe ente kuphila kwaletihlahla.

Letimbotjana tihlala tivulekile kuze kubelapho inkhungu iphakame kantsi ke nalapho emanti lamanengi lahleti kulamacembe agijimela kulendlela lapho lamanti abheka khona. akufani njengaletinye tihlahla letikhala tiyavuleka, ngephansi kwetikhatsi tetinkhungu bese tivaleka nasekushisa. Loku kwenta kutsi kubebete emanti labakhona ngesikhatsi sekushisa ngelilanga.

Indzawo

Le Welwitschia isuka khona ehlandzeni lase Namib, lekungusona lesindzala emahlandzeni mhlabawonkhe netindlela letisetulu letomile kuchubekela endzaweni nshonalanga yeNamibia ngase lugwini kuya eningizimu yenshonalanga incenye yase Angola. Lendzawo ayiyitfoli indlela yelitulu ngeminyaka bese tilinganiso tingaphansi kwemamitha lalikhulu ngemnyaka.

Incumbi yetihlahla ngasinye titfolwa emkhatsini wema km lamashumi lasiphohlongo laselugwini lelisebhandeni lwenkhungu, kubonwa kutsi lenkhungu yintfo lemcoka lefutfumele. Emacembe akhula abe siphohlongo kuya eshumini nesihlanu ngema cm ngemnyaka etihlahleni lesetikhulile, letinye tato titfolwe tinemacembe lakala 1.8m ngebubanti na 6.2m budze, kubonwa umnyaka lomakhulu lasihlanu kuya etinkhulungwaneni letilishumi.

Incumbi yemubono yentiwe eWelwitschia Flache, ehlandzeni lelivulekile, lelingangemashumi lasihlanu ema km emphumalanga ye Swakopmund nemphumalanga ikhan ne Swakop river tihlangana khona.

Umlandvo

Le Welwitschia yekucala yabonwa ngusosayensi wetihlahla wase Austrian Friedrich Welwitsch (ngemnyanka wa 1806 kuya ku 1872) nga 1860 ehlandzeni lase Namib encenye leseningizimu yase Angola. Lesihlahla setsiwe ngemuva kwekubonwa ngu Friedrich ngekuphumelela ebucwalingweni bakhe nekutsi futsi wasitfola waphindze wasitfwala yena kucala.

Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch (1860 – 1872)

Friedrich Welwitsch watalelwa eAustria lapho asebenta sikhatsi njengemphikisi etheatre. Kwatsi muva wandiza waya ePortugal lapho acala kusebenta njengemuntfu lobekacokelela tihlahla. Emva kweminyaka leminengi wamikiswa eAngola nguhulumende wePortuguese lapho entakhona kucokelela lokungetulu kwetinkhulungwane letisihlanu ngeminyaka lelishumi nakubili kulelive.

Labanye bebasebasha kulesayensi ngaleso sikhatsi phindze babambe lwati lolukhulu lolusebentako.
Watsi nakabuya eAngola Welwitsch wakhetsa kuhlala eLondon ahlale dvute kwe Msamo Wesive Wetemvelo Temlandvo lose Royal Botanical Gardens. Wasebenta lapho waze wafa ngemnyaka wa 1872.

Emva kwekufa kwakhe hulumende wase Prtuguese (lowamubhadalela imikoleko yakhe) watsatsa lebebaphetse lifa lakhe babamikisa enkantolo kuyozama kutsatsa letintfo takhe. Ngemuva kwekulwa lokudze enkantolo, lokwatsatsa iminyaka lemitsatfu sijubo safika – lohulumende watfola incenye yekucala emakhophi futsi loMsamo weMlandvo Wetemvelo watfola incenye yesibili.

Dr. Friedrich Welwitsch ingcwatjelwe eMangcwabeni ase Kensal Green eLondon. Litje lakhe lemngcwabo lahlotjiswa ngekudweba yena Welwitschia.

Umbhalo Lohlanganisiwe

Kwakekwacatjangwa kutsi lesilwane lesake sahlala esihlahleni sa Welwitschia-lesatiwa ngekutsi yi Welwitschia Bug (Probergrothius sexpunctatis) – besenta umsebenti wekumphova letihlahla kepha loku kwabese kuyamiswa. Le Welwitschia Bug akusilo libhungane ngekucabanga kepha yi bug lengiyombamba. Idla lokusamanti kwalesihlahla se Welwitschia.