Uphuncuka Bemphethe we Bhulu Lase Vredefort

© David Fleminger

Yasoloko Inengxwaba-ngxwaba

Ubuhlobo phakathi kwama bhulu kunye namaNgesi babusoloko bunengxwabangxwaba. Emva kwe Great Trek, amaNgesi arhutya iinyawo ekuvumeleni ukuzimela kwamabhulu njenge lizwe. Kodwa baphinda bazisola kwamsinya emva koko, xa kwaye kwacaca ukuba uMzantsi Afrika usenokuqulatha ubutyebi bezimbiwa. Idayimani zabhaqwa eKimberly ngeminyaka yoo 1860 kwaye imfazwe yokuqala ye Anglo-Boer war yaqala ngomnyaka ka 1880 (izithonga zokuqala zadutyulwa e Potchefstroom) yaze yaphela emva konyaka. Le mfazwe yaphunyelelwa ngama bhulu.

Kwiminyaka elishumi yokugqibela yoo 1800, imo yaphinda ayakwazi ukunqandeka. Kulandela ukubhaqwa kwe golide eWitwatersrand, amaNgesi avusa uchuku abe efuna izizwe ezizimeleyo (-Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek kunye ne Orange Free State) ukuba zidityaniswe zibe yingxenye yoMzantsi Afrika. Amabhulu ema entla, abe efunga ukuba azakukulwela ukuzimela kwawo. Olu kruthwa-kruthwano lwaqhubeka de kwabe kuqala imfazwe.

I-Anglo-Boer War Yesibini

I-Anglo-Boer War yesibini (nekwabizwa ngemfazwe yo Mzantsi Afrika) yabalidabi elide, nelatsala ixesha elide. Ekubeni bezifumanise bengenazikhali zaneleyo ukulwa umkhosi wamaNgesi, amabhulu ohlula amajoni ngokwamaqela amancinci emikhosi. Lemikhosi yayi hlasela umkhosi wamajoni ithi yakugqiba inyamalale ematyholweni. AmaNgesi ayethi eleqisa angakwazi ukuwafumana abamaqhingashe bomkhosi. Lo cekwa waya ukhula ngakumbi, kumane kunqolotywana kungade kudityanwe ngqo. Le yaba yiguerrilla war yokuqala ehlabathini. Ekugqibeleni, amaNgesi ayaqatha atshabalalisa kwanto ikhula emhlabeni. Amasimi atshiswa,izityalo zatshatyalaliswa. Abafazi nabantwana babanjwa bathuthelwa kwi concentration camps, nalapho indlala nezifo zazigquba.

Umphathiswa we Dome

Ingingqi yase Vredefort yathwaxeka kanobom, Ngomnyaka ka 1901, uLord Kitchener wabhengeza ngokuzingca ukuba akusekho zimfuno zokuphila zishiyekileyo kummandla wase
Parys-Reitzburg yaye abantu babegcinwe kulengingqi (concentration camps) ,(kuquka enye ekunokuba yayisetyenziswa ukugcinwa amabanjwa amnyama). Ekuhambeni kwethuba, amabhulu anyazeleka ukuba abambe ingxoxo kunye namaNgesi kuhlengwa hlengiswe. Yaze imigaqo emitsha yoMzantsi Afrika yasekwa. Le ngxushu-ngxushu yaqhuba ukusuka ngomnyaka ka 1899 ukuya kuma ngo 1902.

Ngokwe njongo zebali lethu, umhlaba onentaba we Vredefort Dome waba libala elimlungeleyo londize wama bhulu kunye namaNgesi. Amagontshi kunye nemisele ebhidekisayo yabazindawo zokuzimela ezi lamaqela mancinci amajoni, kwaye ngokunga ihleliwe, iVaal River ebalulekileyo yayinqumla kanye phakathi kulo mmandla.

Umphathiswa wale Dome yayilibhulu eliyi commander enyamezelayo nenenkani ebizwa ngo
Christiaan de Wet. Wayehlala elimeva kwicala. Kodwa amaNgesi ayemfumana manqaphanqapha. Wayenguphuncuka bemphethe kangangokuba wade wathiywa igama elingu
‘The Boer Pimpernel’ okanye ‘uphuncuka bemphethe webhulu’.

Inkokheli Edumileyo

U-Christiaan De Wet wayinkokheli ebukhali kodwa edumileyo. Waqala ukufumana indumasi kwimfazwe ye Nicholson’s Nek, nalapho iqela elincinci lamabhulu aphantsi kolawulwo lwake, loyisa umkhosi wamaNgesi laze labamba amabanjwa angama 800. Waye wenyuselwa kwisikhundla sobangu mphathi ophezulu (commander in chief) weqela lamajoni ase Free State wawuthathela phezulu umsebenzi wakhe. Kuqala, wawabhida amaNgesi ngokuwaqubula ngasemva. Waze waqhushumbisa ibhulorho kaloliwe enqumla eVaal River waze wagqogqa indawo yokugcina impahla yamaNgesi, wahrwaphiliza apho impahla exabisa isiqingatha sesigidi se pounds.

Ayelugcwabevu amaNgesi sesi senzo. Ngoko ke, ngokuziphindezela nangakumbi, amaNgesi azama ukubamba urhulumente wamabhulu nowawu zinze eBethlehem. U-De Wet kunye neqela lakhe lamajoni, baleqisa ukuya kusindisa, kodwa abazange bakwazi ukuwajika amaNgesi. Wakwazi ukukhupha uMongameli Steyn kunye namanye amalungu abalulekileyo phambi kokuba iwe, waqhubeka nokubakhaphela ebasa ePotchefstroom.

Ithuba

U-Lord Kitchener ngoku wabona ithuba lokuphelisa le mfazwe kubekanye, waze wathumela umkhosi wamajoni angama 50 000 ukuba akhangele uChristiaan De Wet. Esi yaba sisiqalo se First De Wet Hunt (zahamba zabantathu). Eleqwa ngamaNgesi, uDe Wet kunye neqela lakhe babaleka ukusingisa eVredefort, besinda ngokulambisa kuzo zonke iikhona. Ngeli xesha, amaNgesi ayesele emhrangqe empuma kunye nasemazantsi, evale kwandlela iphindela eFree State. U-De Wet kwakufanele awele iVaal. Umbuzo ngowokuba wayezakuwela ndawoni.

U-Lord Metheun, nowayenguphathi wemikhosi yamaNgesi kwelase Transavaal, wayeyalelwe ukuba agade zonke iindlela ezinqumla umlambo phakathi kwe Scandinavia Drift kunye ne Lindeques Drift. Kodwa zazimalunfa ne 12 ezinye iindlela ezinqumlayo phakathi kulemida mibini kwaye imikhosi yamaNgesi yayisele isetyenziswe yonke. U-De Wet wathatha elithuba wawela yena nabantu bakhe kumlambo oseSchoemansdrift ngomhla ka 6 August 1900.

I-Dome Mountain Land

U-Metheun wakhawuleza weva ukuba bawelile waze wathumela amajoni ukuba bayokuthinthela amabhulu ngaphambili eTransvaal. Ngelishwa xa befika kulendawo bafumana amagontshi-ngontshi emisele eyenza kwanzima ukuba abafumane. U-Christiaan De Wet, ke yena ngeloxesha wabe ephinyela kwi Dome Mountain Land, esingise ePotch. Waye wathumela neqedlana elimbalwa ukuze lisebenze njenge siphithikezi, ngale ndlela wakwazi ukubhida umkhondo. AmaNgesi ashiyeka ecinga ukuba uzakuhamba nge Lindeques Drift ukuphindela eFree State.

Logama amaNgesi elungisa umkhosi wawo ewusa kwicala elingelilo, uDe Wet wanyubeleza wawela iMooi River wagqitha nge Potch. AmaNgesi akhawuleza ayibona impazamo, aqala uqalo olutsha abekeka ezithendeni zika De Wet xa kanye besenyuka besingise eMagaliesberg. Yabangulo mbhodamo wokuliwa kubalekwa, njengoba amabhulu ayebalekela eOlifants Nek, indlela egqitha kwisiphelo sentshona yase Magaliesberg. U-Metheun wayekholelwa ekubeni iOlifants Nek igadwe ngamajoni amaNgesi. Ngoko ke wathumela amadoda akwicala lakhe ukuba ayokuvingca kwezinye iindawo zokugqitha kulengingqi. Le ndlela yayivulekile waze uDe Wet wabaleka ukuwela iintaba. Wabe ulushiyile utshaba ngalondlela.