The Boer Pimpernel of Vredefort

© David Fleminger

Kutseka tseka himinkarhi

Vuxaka exikarhi ka mabunu na ma-British abyi tseka-tseka hi minkarhi hinkwawo. Endzhaku ka the Great Trek, ma-British va amukerile vanga swilavi kutiyimela ka mabunu eka republic, kambe vavuye va tisola swinene eka xiboho xavona loko swihumele erivaleni leswaku Afrika Dzonga rifuwile hi swicelwa. Ti diamonds tikumekile e Kimberley hi malembe yava 1860s naswona ku pfuke nyimpi yosungula ya Anglo-Boer War hi 1880 (laha matlulu yosungula yanga duvuriwa e Potchefstroom) naswona yiherile endzhaku ka lembe laha kunga hlula mabunu.

Endzhaku kava 1800s, hambi swiritano, xiyimo lexi xivuye xingaha kondzeleleki. Endzhaku kaloko ku kumiwe nsuku e Witwatersrand, ma-British vasungule kulava leswaku ku hlanganisiwa ti republic totiyimela hi toxe ta mabunu (Zuid Afrikaanse Republiek na Orange Free State) leswaku tiva Afrika Dzonga yin’wa. Mabunu avanga lavi notwa nchumu hi mhaka leyi laha vanga tshembisa ku lwela ntshuxeko wa vona. Ku jamelana swive kona kufikela nyimpi yitikomba.

Nyimpi ya vumbirhi ya Anglo-Boer

Nyimpi ya vumbirhi ya Anglo-Boer War (leyi vuriwaka nyimpi ya Afrika Dzonga) ayi lehile. Laha vanga tikuma vangahari na matlharhi yoringanela yaku lwisa vuthu ra ma-British, mabunu vateke nkarhi lowu kuva swivatirhela hikuva vateka vavanuna lava va vaendla mavuthu lawantsongo. Mavuthu lawa aya famba hinkwako aya hlasela mavuthu ya ma-British kutani ya nyamalala enhoveni. Ma-British avata hlongorisa kambe vanga khomi munhu hikuva mavuthu lawa ayata nyamalala naku va tumbelela. Leswi hinkwaswo swinyanye kuva swinga heli laha aku tshama kuri naku hlaselana, leswi swinga hetelela swiva nyimpi ya ma-guerrilla.

Ma-British vateke xiboho xo tika swinene laha vanga sungula ndlela ya tihanyi swinene loko vanghenisa nawu wa misava leswaku kutava na ndzalo. Mapurasi ya tshwile naswibyariwa swihlaseriwa naku herisiwa. Vavasati na vana va khomiwa vapfaleriwa kutani vatekiwa vayisiwa e tinkambeni laha akuri na ndlala na mavabyi.

Master of the Dome

Ndzhawu ya Vredefort ayi twisiwe kuvava. Hi 1901, Lord Kitchener hikutinyungubyisa u tivise leswaku akuna switirhisiwa leswinga sala endzhawini ya Parys-Reitzburg naswona tinkamba tisimekiwile eka ndzhawu leyi (kukatsa na laha aku fanele kutirhiseriwe swivochwa swa vantima). Eku heteleleni, mabunu ava boheka kuya burisana na vona etafuleni laha kunga sunguriwa Afrika Dzonga yin’wana. Ntlimbo lowu wufambe kusuka hi 1899 kuya fika 1902.

Kuya hi xikongomelo xa xitori xa hina, tindzhawu ta tintshava ta Vredefort Dome yitikombe yiri ndzhawu ya kahle kutlanga mintlangu ya mabunu ya ximanga na kondlo na ma-British. Magova na swiganga leswinga tala eka ndzhawu leyi hiswona swiendla leswaku kuva na tindzhawu totala to tumbela eka tona naswona nambu wa Vaal River wuhundza hikona.

Master of the Dome a kuri khomanda ya mabunu ya nkanu swinene loyi a tiveka hi vito ra Christiaan de Wet. Loyi akuri mutwa lowu awu xanisa ma-British naswona akota ku nyena anga khomiwi minkarhi hinkwayo. Ari munhu loyi a famba emahlweni hiku nyenga leswinga endla leswaku akuma vito ro duvulela ra ‘The Boer Pimpernel’.

Murhangeri wa ndhuma

Christiaan De Wet ari murhangeri wopfumala ntwela vusiwana kambe ari loyi arhandziwaka. U sungule hiku humelela eka nyimpi ya Nicholson’s Nek, laha masocha yantsongo ya mabunu lawa aya rhangeriwa hi yena lawa yanga hlula masocha ya ma-British laha vanga khoma 800 wa vabohiwa. Ubuye a tlakusiwa kuva commander in chief wa masocha ya Free State laha anga teka ntirho wa yena hi nyanyuko swinene waku endla ntirho wa yena. Xosungula, u jume masocha ya ma-British hikuva dodela ava hlasela hile ndzhaku. Kutani a hahlula xiporo xa xitimela eka biloho leri tsemakanyaka Vaal River kutani aya fika eka British depot, laha anga teka switirhisiwa leswi durhaka hafu ya miliyoni yati pound. Ma-British ava hlundzukile swinene.

Se, hindlela yaku khunguvanyisa, Ma-British varingetile ku onga mfumo lowu awu kumeka e Bethlehem hinkarhi walowo. De Wet na masocha yakwe vatsutsumele kona kuya ponisa mfumo kambe avanga koti ku tlherisa ma-British. U kotile ku humesa President Steyn naswin’wana swirho swa nkoka e Bethlehem yinga se wa, hambi swiritano, ukotile kuva heleketa e Potchefstroom.

Nkateko

Lord Kitchener a vone nkateko waku herisa nyimpi yihelela makumu, kutani arhumela 50 000 wa masocha kuya lava Christiaan De Wet. Leswi akuri masungulo yo hlota De Wet Hunt (kuta hetelela kuve na ku hlota ka nharhu). Hiku hlohleteriwa hi ma-British, De Wet na hinkwavo lava ari na vona vatsutsumele etlhelo ra Vredefort, laha anga pona ri ahlamile eka masocha ya ma-British lawa aya pfale eka khona yin’wana na yin’wana. Kufikela sweswi, ma-British aya n’wi rhandzerile hile vuhuma dyambu nale dzongeni, laha vanga pfala tindlela hinkwato to nghena e Free State. De Wet a boheka ku tsemakanya nambu wa Vaal. Xivutiso akuri ku xana ata tsemakanya hihi kwihi.

Lord Metheun, loyi a rhangele masocha ya British e Transvaal, a lerisiwe kuva a languta tindlela hinkwato leti tsemakanyaka nambu exikarhi ka Scandinavia Drift na Lindeques Drift, kambe akuri na kwalomu ka 12 wa tindzhawu leti anga tsemakanyaka hikona exikarhi ka tindzhawu letimbirhi naswona masocha ya ma-British ava vambile eka tona. De Wet u ringetile kutani a teka vanhu vakwe kutlula nambu hile Schoemansdrift hiti 6 August 1900.

Dome Mountain Land

Metheun ute loko aswi twise sweswo a rhumela masocha kuya sivela mabunu lawa kuya emahlweni e Transvaal. Xobiha xakona hileswaku loko vaya fika kona vakume leswaku hikwalaho ka minkova na swiganga swi endle leswaku swiva tikela swinene kufikelela xikongomelo xaku va sivela. Christiaan De Wet, hinkarhi walowo, arikarhi a davula mananga yasala ya hlangana e Dome Mountain Land, a kongoma e Potch. U kote naku rhumela xikombiso xoka xinga hanyi, kutani xibayizisa ma-British laha ava hleketa leswaku uta tlhela a vuya e Free State hile Lindeques Drift. Hinkarhi walowo ma-British avari karhi kurhumela masocha eka tlhelo leringa hoxeka, De Wet u tsemakanyile e Mooi River kutani aya humelela e Potch.

Kutani ma-British va vuya va vona xihoxo xa vona kutani va cinca maendlelo, leswaku vata sala De Wet endzhaku laha vanga kongoma e n’walungwini kuya e Magaliesberg. Kutsutsuma kuve kona laha mabunu vanga tsutsuma hi rivilo vakongoma e Olifants Nek, leyinga loko u hundzile nyana evupela dyambu bya Magaliesberg. Metheun a tshemba leswaku Olifants Nek ayi khomiwe hi masocha ya ma-British kutani yena a rhumela vavanuna kuya pfala eka tindzhawu tin’wana to tsemakanya hitona endzhawini liya. Kambe a endle xihoxo. Ndzhawu yo hundza ayi pfulekile kutani De Wet u tsutsumile a tsemakanya tintshava. Ku hlongorisa aswi herile. Kondlo ari nyamalarile.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni