Umtshato we Siko lesi Xhosa

© Dr Peter Magubane

Imithetho Yomtshato wama Nguni

Umtshato wesintu kwakuvumelekile ukutshata ngaphandle kwesizwe sakuni ngokwesiduko, kwaye leyo yayi yindlela yama Nguni kuphela. Wonke umntwana wama Nguni uzalelwa phantsi kwesiduko esithile ngokwe ziduko zama nguni kwaye ukutshata kwisizwe esinye sisono esikhulu kwaye akuvumelekanga. Phakathi kwama Xhosa, kwakunga vumelekanga ukutshata kwizizukulwana zokhokho bobane. Umakoti wayehlala nomyeni wakhe nabantu besizwe sakhe.

Babekwazi ukutshata abafazi aba ninzi, iinkosi namadoda atyebileyo anemihlambi emikhulu yenkomo babengatshati umfazi omnye, kwaye kwezinye iimeko, babenabafazi abane nangaphezulu. Bebe bekwa ngoku landelelana ngezindlu ezingafaniyo. Phakathi kwama Xhosa, indlu yomfazi omkhulu yayiphakathi kwendlu enkulu nendlu engasekunene.

Umfazi Omkhulu

Umfazi wokuqala /omkhulu wayenoxanduva lokuzala inkwenkwe ne ndlalifa, unyana omkhulu, ozakuthi afumane isihlalo sika tata wakhe- ubukhosi okanye intloko yekhaya njengoko kulindelekile xa utata ethe wasweleka. Inkosikazi enkulu yenkosi yayibangumfazi okwinqanaba elithile, intombi yenkosi esuka kubukhosi obukubufuphi (Khoisan okanye inkosazana yaba Thembu).

Unyana wangase kunene wendoda, unyana wokuqala, wonkosikazi yangase kunene, yayi yinkosi okanye intloko yekhaya, enemihlambi yayo, abaxhomekeke kuyo nabalandeli. Kodwa ke kwakuse mandleni wakhe ukuseka ubukhosi bakhe okanye umzi ngokuthi athabathe umhlaba ongazange uhlaliwe okanye owawuhlaliwa ngaphambili. Amakhosikazi angamanye ayebonwa njengaba ncedisi (amaqadi) kwizindlu ezinkulu ezimbini kwaye zohlulwa ngoko kulingana kwazo.

Eyona nto ibalulekileyo xa inkosi itshate umfazi omkhulu sele ubomi buhambile, xa ethe watshata abanye, yayikukuba umzukulwana ongumfana waye mncinci kulowo umdala kwaye enolwazi kuno nyaka wesandla sasekunene. Yayi yingxaki kele kwaye ixabanisa phakathi kwabafana abezanayo. Umlo wokuchasana oqala phakathi komnyana olihlakani kunye nonyana omkhulu ungenza okokuba ubukhosi buthatyathwe kunyana omkhulu, njengoko kwenziwa kwimeko ka Tshawe no Cirha abakhe bachazwa kutshanje. Okanye ingakhokhelela kwiyantlukwano noqhekeko ebukhosini, njengo dabi oluphakathi kuka Rharhabe no Gcaleka.

Yayisithi xa indoda itshate umfazi omnye, oku Kwaku ngaqhelekanga phakathi kwabo bangamaveza ndlebe, inkosikazi yokuqala yayiba yinkosikazi enkulu, ze unyana wayo wokuqala ibeyindlalifa ikwanguye nonyana omkhulu. Kubafazi besithembu ngamnye waye banendawo yakhe yokuhlala kunye nenkomo nombona ukuze bakwazi ukuziphilisa kwimizi yabo. Inkosikazi yokuqala yenkosi yayihlala emzini wayo okude enkundleni enkulu.

Iingxoxo Zomtshato

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ukunikezwa kweenkomo (ikhazi) elisuka kwiqela likamkhwenyana injongo yalo yayikuvala umtshato nokubhatala utata ka makoti ngokuthi alahlekelwe yintsebenzo yentombi yakhe phakathi kwekhaya. Iingxoxo zemitshato phakathi kwezintsapho zimbini zaziba nobunzima zitsalwe, ingakumbi xa kufuneka kugqitywe ngenani leenkomo elifunwa ebukhweni. Ukuhanjiswa kweenkomo yayikwasiso nesiqinisekiso: xa umakoti anokuthi angaphatheki kakuhle kwikhaya lakhe elitsha, angabuyela kwikhaya labazali bakhe, kwaye usapho lakulomyeni wakhe liyakuthi lilahlekelwe ziinkomo.

Indoda efumene iinkomo ukuze itshate ingakwazi ukufumana omnye umfazi ongowayo okanye izisebenzise ukuncedisa unyana okanye omnye wesiduko ukuze afumane umfazi, yiyo lonto ukunikezana ngenkomo xa kutshathwa yayi yindlela yokwabelana ngobutyebi, abafazi bahambele kude kuneenkomo. Oonomishini babekholelwa okokuba ilobola kukuthenga umakoti, bayi nyhasha besithi ayilunganga.

Nangona imitshato emininzi isenzeka ecaweni, okanye enkundleni kamantyi kwezintsuku, ilobola ayizange inyamalale nangona kulemihla ibhatalwa njenge mali elingana neenkomo ngokwentengiso yale mihla. Umtshato wesintu wawungeyiyo indlela elula yokuthabatha uhambiswano lwababini ukuze bazale. Okona kubalulekileyo, yayi yindlela yokwakha ubudlelwane kumaqela angazalaniyo, yiyo lonto umtshato phakathi kwesiduko esinye wawungavumelekanga.

Ubomi Obutsha buka Makoti

Emveni komtshato, umakoti wayebamtsha kwikhaya lakhe elitsha. Kufuneka abonakalise ukuzithoba nembeko (intlonipho) kumamazala notatazala nabo bonke abadala phakathi kwekhaya; wayengavumelekanga ukunqumla ebuhlanti xa esiya ezindlini, kwakufuneka angene emveni kobuhanti; waye ngavumelekanga nokungena esibayeni seenkomo.

Indawo yomfazi otshatele kulomzi yayimane ibangcono ngokuba ixesha lihamba nokuba abantwana baye bekhula. Abafazi abasexesheni kwaku kholelwa okokuba bangcolisa imfuyo kwaye bengavumelekanga esibayeni senkomo. Xasele bebadala beyekile nokuya exesheni - indawo yomfazi yayiphantse ilingana neye ndoda phakathi kwekhaya. Waye vunyelwa ukuya emqombothini nokuhamba imicimbi atshaye nenqawe.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie