Umsebenzi ka Archbishop Desmond Tutu Emva Calu-Calulo

Ilifa lika Tutu

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu at 85 (2016).
Nasemveni kokuba umthetho wezo calu-calulo sele uphelisiwe, uArchbishop Desmond Tutu wayesazi ukuba umsebenzi wakhe usekude ekubeni awugqibe. Wayesenephupha lehlabathi elinoxolo, kwaye waqhubeka noku sasaza umyalezo wakhe wabe esakha nelifa lakhe. Ngomnyaka ka 1998 wasebenzisana kunye nenkosikazi yakhe uLea, ekusekeni iDesmond Tutu Peace Centre (DTPC). Le senta yaqala ukusebenza e-Orlando West, Soweto phambi kokuba inwenwele nase Kapa ngomnyaka ka 2000. Le senta iseKapa yaqhubeka nokuseka inkqubo yenkokheli ezisakhasayo (Emerging Leadership).

uTutu yena buqu wabuyela kwingcambu yakhe njengo tishala. Wafundisa kwisikolo sezakwalizwi esibizwa nge Episcopal Divinity School eCambridge, Massachusetts ngomnyaka ka 2002. Ngomnyaka ka 2003 wafundisa kwi Dyunivesithi yase North Carolina waze ngomnyaka ka 2004 wabuyela apho wayefunde khona naye, eKing’s College eLondon, njenge profesa ondwendweleyo. Wakwasebenza nanjengo profesa ondwendweleyo kangange minyaka emibini e-Emory University e-Atlanta, Georgia nalapho wafundisa isifundo sezenkolo (theology).

IiCampaigns Zamazwe ngamazwe zo Xolo

uTutu waqhubeka ngokuthetha phandle ngemiba yehlabathi emhluphayo. Wasebenzisa isikhundla sakhe ukwenza oko anako ukwenza ihlabathi elingcono. Oku kuquka:

Ngomnyaka ka 2006 lo ka Tutu wavula ngokusesikweni icampaign yehlabathi ukulwisana nokuthinjwa kwabantu ngenjngo yokubathengisa kwamanye amazwe (human trafficking) ngokuthi kubhaliswe bonke abantwana ngethuba abasandula kuzalwa.

Ngomnyaka ka 2008 uTutu wabayinxalenye ye ntshukumo (pro-Tibetan protest) eSan Francisco ngethuba le Tibetan Unrest. Kule ntshukumo, wahlabela ikhwelo kwintloko zelizwe ukuba angawuzimazi umnyadala wokuvulwa kwe Olimpiki ze Hlobo zika 2008, ezazibanjelwe eBeijing, ukubonisa inkxaso nabathu base Tibet.

Ngomnyaka ka 2009 wancedisa ekusekeni iSolomon Islands’ Truth and Reconciliation Commission neyasekelwa kwi Truth and Reconciliation Commission-Ikomoshoni ye Nyani noXolelwaniso.

uTutu wazimaza Inkomfa Yamazwe Amanyeneyo Yokuguqu-guquka Kwemozulu (United Nations Climate Change Conference) ngomnyaka ka 2009, nalapho wamemelela ukuba kuyekwe ukutyalwa izimali kwii fossil fuels.

Ngomnyaka ka 2017 uTutu kunye nabanye abalishumi ababewongwe nge Nobel Peace Prize, basebenzisana ukucenga ilizwe lase Saudi Arabia ukuba limise isigwebo sentambo kwiqela labantwana abali 14, nababethathe inkxaxeba kwiintshukumo zase Saudi Arabia, waze ekupheleni konyaka wacela inkokheli yase Myanmar ukuba iyeke ukungcungcuthekiswa kwe Muslim Rohingya.

Ukubandakanyeka kwi Miba Yezempilo

©Eric Miller
Masazane Nogaga waits to undergo a test at the Tutu Tester. April 2009 Cape Town.
Lo ka Tutu, oko waqala ukuzibandakanya kwimiba yezempilo, ukufunyaniswa kwakhe ukuba unomhlaza we prostate wabe ehlutshwa nayimpilo enkenenkene ngethuba esebenza kwi Truth and Reconciliation Commission kwiminyaka yoo 1990.

Waphinda wajongana nemiba ye HIV/AIDS kunye nesifo sephepha (TB). Ngomnyaka ka 2004 iDesmond Tutu HIV Foundation yesekwa ngegama lakhe. Le foundation yaqala ngophando lwe sifo sengculaza/HIV. Yahamba yaquka namachiza eHIV, ukhuseleko, kunye noqeqesho. Yagcila ke nasekunyangeni iTB. uTutu uthetha phandle ngenkxalabo yakhe yokwanda kwe HIV, wade wathetha ngoku xhalaba kwakhe ngethuba uPope Benedict XVI wayesenyulwa. Le Pope yayisaziwa ngokudla ngendebe endala kwimiba ebhekisele kweze sini kunye nezokwabelana ngesondo. Watsho ethetha ukuba uxhalabile ukuba, icawe yama Roman Catholic church izakuqhubeka nokuchaza ukusetyenziswa kwee khondom. uTutu wabanguye nomxhasi we South African Prostate Cancer Foundation.

Ngomnyaka ka 2014 uTutu wazichaza ukuba akakholelwa ekusindisweni kompheumlo womntu phantsi kwazo naziphi na imeko. Waye waxhasa nokuba kubese mthethweni ukuncediswa kokufa, wabe esithi angafuna kwenziwe kanjalo nakuye ukuba kungaze kubekho isidingo.

Usihlalo weeNgwevu

©Roger de la Harpe
Mayor Mike Tarr and Deputy Mayor Jabu Ngube with Archbishop Desmond Tutu at the Mahatma Gandi statue, Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu Natal.
Ngomnyaka ka 2007 uTutu wonyulwa njengo sihlalo weeNgwevu, iqela leenkokheli zehlabathu elimanyane ukuze lithathe inkxaxheba ekuziseni ulwazi, ubukrelekrele, ukunyaniseka kunye nokulungileyo ukusombulula ingxushu-ngxushu zehlabathi. Amanye amalungu ayequka uNelson Mandela (owayesakuba ngu mongameli wase Mzantsi Afrika), Jimmy Carter (owayesakuba ngu mongameli wase Melika), uKofi Annan (owayesakuba ngusihlalo jikelele we UN) kunye no Mary Robinson (owayesakuba ngumongameli wase Ireland).

Wakhokela uhambo lokuqala lweliqela, lisiya eDafur kwilizwe lase Sudan ngelinge lokunceda kuphele ingxushu-ngxushu eyayipha. Ezi Ngwevu zaqhubeka zaya kutyelela e-Ivory Coast, Cyprus, Ethiopia, India, South Sudan kunye nase Mbindi Mpuma. uTutu wehla kwisikhundla sakhe ngomnyaka ka 2013.

Ukuxhasa Amalungelo Abantu Abathandanayo Besini Esinye

uTutu waziwa jikelele ngokuxhasa amalungelo abantu abathandanayo besisini esinye. Oku ke kwabanga iintetha ngenxa yokoyanyaniswa kwakhe nezenkolo. Nox kunjalo, loka Tutu umile ngxi kwelokuba ukucalulwa ngenxa yesini okhetha ukuthandana naye kuyafana nokucalulwa ngesini okanye ngohlanga. Wade wabhalela uGeorge Carey nencwadi mbalelwano emva kwe Nkomfa yoo bhishophu eyayise Lambeth ngomnyaka ka 1998. Nalapho kwa ngqinisiswa ukuba le cawe ayihambisani nokutshatana kwabantu abasisini esinye. Kule ncwadi, uTutu wathi unentloni zokubayinxalenye ye Anglican, kwaye ukuba aboo bangafuni kwamkela utshintsho nokuquka komntu wonke bangahamba. Watyhola le cawe ngoku hoyana nabantu abathandanayo besisini esinye.

“Ukuba uThixo, njengoko besitsho, akabathandi abantu abathandana besisini esinye, andisoze ndimnqule looThixo” - Desmond Tutu

Ingxushu-ngxushu yama Israeli-Palestinian

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tut in his Cape Town office Nov 2001.
uTutu wayesoloko enomdla kwi ngxushu ngxushu yakwa Sirayeli-Palestina kwaye wayesoloko ethetha ngayo nangethuba kwakusekho umthetho wezo calu-calulo eMzantsi Afrika. Emveni kokubhanga kwalo mthetho, waqhubeka nokuthetha phandle ngolu krwitha-krwithwano.

Ngomnyaka ka 2002 wenza intetho nalapho wagxeka ngeliphandle ipolisi yakwa Sirayeli mayelana nama Palestina waze wamemelela ukuba kwenziwe iisanctions kweli lizwe. Wathelekise esi simo kunye neso sezocalu-calulo eMzantsi Afrika.

Wayezakukhokela uhambo lwe Zizwe Ezimanyeneyo (United Nations) olwalusiya eGaza Strip emveni kokuba umkhosi wakwa Sirayeli ubulele abantu abali 19 ngomnyaka ka 2006. Waye walumisa oluhambo emveni kokuba eli lizwe lingazange livume ukumnika imvume.

Egxeka Imfazwe Yase Iraq

Ngomnyaka ka 2003 uTutu waba yinkxalenye kwintshukumo yokulwa intlelo zeMelika zokuqala imfazwe yase Iraq. Ngaphandle kwentshukumo yase New York, nalapho wayekhona waye waqhagamshelana ngomnxena no Condoleezza Rice, emcela ukuba uhrulumente wase Melika uhlehle kule mfazwe. Wayebuza ukuba kutheni ilizwe lase Iraq lisukelwa ngokubanezixhobo ezifanayo nezo zise Europe, India kunye nase Pakistan. Ngomnyaka ka 2004 wabonakala kwimveliso yase Off-Broadway, ebizwa nge Honor Bound to Defend Freedom, nalapho wayegxeka uhrulumente wase Melika ngokugcina amabanjwa kwindawo yase Guantanamo Bay.

Wayethetha phandle ngokungavumelani kwakhe kokuvalelwa kwabantu eMelika nase UK abahranelwa ngokuba zi terrorists, babe bengakhange baxoxe enkundleni. Wayethelekisa oluvalelo kunye nolo lwalusenzeka ngexesha lezo calu-calulo kwilizwe lase Mzantsi Afrika. Ngomnyaka ka 2012 wamemelela ukuba uGeorge W. Bush kunye no Tony Blair ukuba baye kuxoxa kwinkundla yamazwe ngamazwe-International Criminal Court ngenxa yokuqala imfazwe yase Iraq.

Ukugxeka Iinkokheli Ezintsha Zase Mzantsi Afrika

©Eric Miller
Cape Town, Archbisop Desmond Tut in his office at TRC.
Nangona ekuvuyela ukubhukuqwa kohrulumente wocinezelo wase Mzantsi Afrika, uTutu wayekuqwalasele ukuyigada indlela asebenza ngayo uhrulumente omtsha. Wayengathandabuzi nokubaxelela xabesenza into ephuma ecaleni.

Ezinye zezinto awayengaziqondi ngalo rhulumente yinkcitho ephezulu kwizixhobo zasemfazweni, ipolisi ngohrulumente welizwe lase Zimbabwe kunye nokusoloko kukho uhlanga lwabe Nguni kwizikhundla eziphezulu zepolitiki, Watyhola uThabo Mbeki ngokufuna ukuthotyelwa kuyo yonke into ayithethayo ngamalungu e-ANC waze wamgxeka nangokunganiki ngqwalasela yaneleyo kubhubhane we HIV/AIDS.

Lo ka Tutu waphinda wagxeka nothe wahlala esikhundleni sika Thabo Mbeki, uJacob Zuma, ngokungabinantliziyo, ngethuba etyholwa ngokudlwengula nokuhrwaphiliza.

Umhlala Phantsi ka Tutu

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu with Granddaughter.
uTutu wathatha umhlala phantsi kubomi obu sesidlangalaleni ngomnyaka ka 2010 eneminyaka engama 79. Waqhubekeka nomsebenzi wakhe kwi The Elders kunye ne Nobel Laureate Group waze waxhasa ne Desmond Tutu Peace Centre, kodwa wayeka kwisikhundla sakhe njenge but Chancellor ye Dyunivesithi yase Ntshona Koloni nakwesokuba ngummeli we komiyi ecebisayo yeZizwe Ezimanyeneyo (United Nations) kuthintelo lokubulawa kwesininzi. Sele ebonwa njenge icon eMzantsi Afrika kwaye sele ewongwe ngee honorary doctorates eziliqela, kwakunye neembasa ezifana ne Nobel Peace Prize kunye ne American Presidential Medal of Freedom.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana