Intlalo Yoluntu Yohlanga Lwama Tsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Iilali Zama Tsonga

Kwiminyaka yoo 1890 iifama zase Lowveld zazingalungelanga nje ukuzingela, nokulima kuphela. Abanini bezi fama bakhawleza bazithengisela abantu abakhangela iiminerali. Uhlanga lwamaTsonga lwahlawula irenti kwaba banini mihlaba babengahlali nokuhlala kule ndawo. Apho abanini mhlaba babelima khona, abanxusi babebhatalwa ngesivuno, okanye bahlawule irenti ngokuhlala mahala (isithuba seenyanga ezintandathu ngonyaka). Njengokuba amaxabiso onyaka ekhula, kwaye nemihlaba emininzi yase Lowveld isiya ingabinazifo ze malaria okanye izigulo zokulala, abanxusi babenyanzeleka ukuba basebenzele abanini zifama okanye bafudukele kwezinye iindawo.

Ngenxa yemithetho yamapasi, neyayi bathintela ukuba bangafudukele kwiidolophu, iintsapho ezininzi zazinza kwimihlaba ebekelwe ukuhlala abantu abantsundu kuphela. Baphinda bafuduswa njengenxalenye yeentlelo ‘zophuculo’ kwiminyaka yoo 1940, nezazifuna ukudibanisa iilali ezithe gqa gqa, ukuze ibezii lali ezinkulu. Kwabiywa ngocingo kwezi lali baze bohlulwa kwimihlaba enokulinywa/echumileyo.

Kwiminyaka yoo 1960 kunye neyoo 1970, uluntu lwaqhekezwa phakathi njengokuba iintspho zazifuduselwa ‘emakhaya’ endaweni yase Gazankulu. Irhafu kunye nabantu abaninzi kwenza ukuba abantu baxhomekeke emisebenzini ebanyanzela ukuba bafuduke emakhayeni abo. Oku kwabangela ukuba amadoda ashiye iintsapho zawo ixesha elide. Nanamhlanje amabhinqa amaniniz asakhangela amatorho ethutyana kwiifama ezikufutshane. Konke oku kudityaniswe nobomi obucothayo basezilalini, olu chithwa chito losapho kukhokelelo kwimiceli mngeni emininzi: Ukuselwa kotywala ngokugqithisileyo, isifo sikagawulayo (AIDS), ukumitha kwamantombazane aselula kunye nentswela ngqesho zezinye zeengxaku uluntu lwama Tsonga olujongene nazo.

Amakhaya Esintu AmaTshonga

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ikhaya wesintu wohlanga lwamaTsonga (muti), uvamise ukuba nendoda, umfazi/abafazi balendoda, abantwana babo kunye neentsapho zoonyana babo abatshatileyo. Ezi zindlu zakhiwe zaba ngooronta, kunye namadonga odaka kunye nophahla olufulelwe ngengca. Logama indlela owakhiwa ngayo umuti uyashiyana ngokweendawo, kodwa zakhiwe zimi ngendlela ebukufana.

Imizi iye yakhiwe yenze isangqa, ze ibiyelwe ngodonga okanye kubiywe ngamahlahla neziqobo zemithi. Esiphakathini kubekho ubuhlanti (xivaya or tshanga) obukwicala elingaphaya nendawo yokungengela (esetyenziswa ngabahambi abangaziwayo kwelo khaya). Ezinye indawo zokungena ezikhokelela emasimini kunye nendawo zokukha amanzi zisetyenziswa ngamalungu osapho lwalo muti.

Umzi womfazi ongu ndlu nkulu (yindlu lonkulu) ubasemva kwe xivaya, ze izindlu zabanye abafazi siyixhage. Umfazi ngamnye ubanendawo yakhe yokuphekela. Kungaphekelwa kuronta okanye kwindawana egqunywe ngeengcongolo, okanye ebiyelwe ngamatye okanye udaka.

Uyindlu lonkulu unendawo yakhe yokugcina ukutya, nevamise ukuba sisakhiwo esincinci esibekwe phezu kweepali.

Abantwana bahlala bodwa ngokwezini zabo-Amantombazana ahlalela phakathi ko muti, amakhwenkwe wona ahlala phakathi kwe heke enkulu kunye ne xivaya. Indawo ekhethekileyo (huvo), evalwe ngeziqobo zemithi kunye namahlahla eba phantsi komthi, isetyenziselwa iintlanganiso. Enye indawo (gandzelo), nenoma nandawoni ku muti, isetyenziselwa ukuxhela amadini. Ivandla, nesenokuba phandle okanye ngaphakathi ko muti, kulapho amadoda adibanela khona ukushukuxa imiba kunye nokuphathwa ko muti. Akukho mfazi okanye mntwana uvumelekileyo kule ndawo.

Umntu obeka imigaqo nophetheyo kusapho ngutata, nohlonitshwa ngeyona ndlela ngu nkosikazi wakhe kunye nabantwana bakhe. Kusapho olongezelelekileyo, izikhundla kunye nokuhlonitshwa kwabafazi kuxhomekeka ekubeni ngubani oqale watshata. Umfazi wokuqala (nsati lonkulu) ungu ndlunkulu; unesikhundla esiphezulu kwaye kufuneka ahlonelwe ngabanye abafazi. Izikhundla zikwanikwa nabantwana, kwaye zona zixhomekeka kwizikhundla zoonina babo. Ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantwana bukwaxhomekeke kwizikhundla. Ngaphezulu, imithetho, amaxanduva, imisebenzi, amalungelo kunye neemfanelo zihambelana nendlela ethile ekufanele umntwana ngamnye aziphathe ngayo.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana