Ukuhleleka Komphakathi wamaTsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ikhaya lamaTsonga

Emapulazini ase-Lowveld angu-1890 ayefanelekile kakhulu ukuzingela nokulima, futhi abanikazi bawadayisa ngokushesha abaqageli befuna amaminithi amaminerali. Izikhulumi zesiTsonga kule ndawo zikhokhwa abashayeli abaqashiwe; lapho abanikazi basebenzisana nomhlaba, abaqashi bakhokhelwa ngohlobo (ngokuvamile uyingxenye yesivuno esivunyiwe) noma abasebenzi (cishe izinyanga eziyisithupha ngonyaka). Njengoba amanani omhlaba aphakama, futhi izingxenye ezinkulu ze-Lowveld zahlulwa yi-malaria futhi zalala-ukugula, abaqashi baphoqeleka ukuba babe abasebenzi abankontileka noma bahambe epulazini.

Imingcele yokudlula imithetho yokuthuthela emadolobheni, imindeni eminingi ihlezi ezweni eligcinelwe umsebenzi wase-Afrika. Kodwa baphinde bashukunyiswa njengemikhankaso 'yentuthuko' eminyakeni ye-1940 bafuna ukuhlanganisa izindlu ezihlakazekile emadolobheni amakhulu, beka ucingo futhi bahlukanise kahle ezweni elilimalayo.

Emiphakathini yama-1960 kanye no-1970 imiphakathi yahlukaniswa njengoba imindeni yathuthela ezweni laseTsonga, eGazanikulu. Ukukhokhwa kwentela nokukhuphuka kwemvelo ezindaweni ezigciniwe kwenza abantu baxhomeke kakhulu emsebenzini wokufuduka. Lokhu kwabangela amadoda ukuba ashiye imindeni yabo isikhathi eside, futhi namuhla ngisho nabesifazane ezindaweni zasemaphandleni bafuna umsebenzi wonyaka ngezifama ezikude. Njengoba kuhlanganiswe nokuhlukunyezwa kokuphila emadolobheni, lokhu kuhlaselwa isikhathi eside emndenini kubangele ukugula okuningi: ukudakwa ngokweqile, i-AIDS, ukukhulelwa kwentsha kanye nokungaqashwa kwemisebenzi.

I-Traditional Tsonga Homestead

©Dr Peter Magubane
Indlu yendabuko yaseTsonga (umuthi), ukuhlala ngokujwayelekile, inomuntu, umkakhe noma abafazi, izingane zabo kanye nemindeni yamadodana abo ashadile. Ukwakhiwa kwezindlu, ukugubha ngezindonga zomhlaba kanye nokuphahlazeka kwemhlanga, kubonisa izizinda zabo zaseTsonga. Ngesikhathi ukuhlelwa komuthi kuhlukahluka endaweni eya endaweni, bonke babelana ngezici ezithile.

Indlu yendawo ngokuvamile iyisiyingi ngodonga oluseduze noma ucingo, olwenziwe ngamagatsha kanye nezihlahla zomuthi. Phakathi nendawo yenkomo yezilwane (xivaya noma tshanga) ngokumelene nomnyango omkhulu (okungaziwa ngabantu abangaziwa) engxenyeni esempumalanga yendlu. Ezinye izinyathelo eziholela emasimini namaphuzu amanzi kusetshenziselwa amalungu omuthi.

Indlu yowesifazane oyinhloko (yindlu lonkulu) ilandela i-xivaya ngehora lesishiyagalolunye, nalabo abanye abafazi bayifake. Ngamunye unendawo yakhe yokupheka, endlini noma endaweni ehlolwe ngombongolo, amatshe noma udonga lomhlaba. I-nyumba yekhulukulu inegranari yayo, ngokuvamile isakhiwo esincane esikhuliswa emasendeni.

Izingane zihlala eceleni ngokwecansi-amantombazane kahle phakathi komuthi nabafana phakathi kwesango eliyinhloko ne-xivaya. Indawo ekhethekile (huvo), evame ukufakwa ngamagodo namagatsha futhi ngaphansi kwesihlahla, isetshenziselwa imihlangano; enye indawo (gandzelo), okungenzeka ibe yikuphi emthini, kungenxa yokuzidela. I-vandla, okungenzeka ibe ngaphakathi noma ngaphandle komuthi, yilapho amadoda ehlangana khona ukuxoxa ngokuphatha kanye nemicimbi yomuthi. Akekho owesifazane noma ingane evunyelwe kule ndawo.

Igunya emndenini lihlala nobaba, ohlonishwa kakhulu ngumkakhe nezingane. Emndenini owedlule, isimo kanye nesimo samakhosikazi kunqunywe ngomyalelo abawushadile kuwo. Umfazi wokuqala (nsati lonkulu) ungumfazi oyinhloko; unesikhundla esiphezulu nesimo futhi kufanele sinikezwe inhlonipho efanele ngabanye. Usezingeni kanye nesimo sinikezwa nezingane futhi kunqunywa ukuma komama. Isizinda, isimo, nobulili kunquma ukuthi ubuhlobo bukhona phakathi kwabo bonke abantakwethu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imithetho yokuziphatha, izibophezelo, imisebenzi, amalungelo kanye namalungelo akhona ekhompyutheni yokuziphatha okumele kulindeleke ukuthi ingane ngayinye ibone.

Translated by Nsika Khoza