Vatshamelo ya Vanhu va VaTsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Mimiti ya Vatsonga

Hi malembe yava 1890s mapurasi yale Lowveld aya lulamerile kutlula ku hlota nyana naku rimiwa, naswona endzhaku ka nkarhi nyana vinyi va wona vaya xavisele lava ava lava ku cela migodi. Vanhu lava vulavulaka Xitsonga eka ndzhawu liya ava hakela rent eka wona lava avangari kona; laha vinyi va wona ava tirha eka wona, lava kungariki eka vona va hakela mali leyi lulameleke (hi xitalo akuri hafu ya ntshovelo wa swibyariwa swa vona) kumbe ku tirha (ku ringana ntsevu wa tinhweti hi lembe). Loko mintsengo ya misava yi tlakuka, naswona swiphemu leswikulu swa Lowveld aswi basisiwile eka malaria xikan’we na mavabyi yaku etlela, lava ava renta vaboheke ku hundzuka vatirhi kumbe va suka emapurasini.

Ava aleriwa hikwalaho ka milawu ya mapasi kuva va suka eka doroba rin’we kuya eka rin’wani, mindyangu yotala yitshame eka misava leyi ayi vekeriwe vanhu vantima. Kambe vatlhele vasusiwa loko kuva na mapfhumba yo antswisa hi malembe yava 1940s laha aku ringetiwa kuva kuvekiwa vanhu lava ava hangalakile vava eka muganga wun’we, laha kunga endliwa darata naku biyelela tindzhawu to rima eka tona.

Hi va 1960s na 1970s miganga liya yi hangalasiwile tani hileswi mindyangu yotala yinga susiwa yiya eka tiko xikaya ra Vatsonga, Gazankulu. Timhaka ta xibalu naku tala ngopfu ka vanhu swi endle leswaku manhu votala va suka vaya lava mintirho eti ndzhawini tin’wana. Leswi swiendle leswakuvavanuna vasukela mimiti ya vona kuringana nkarhi woleha, naswona kufikela namuntlha hambi vari vavasati vasuka vaya lava mintirho ya tinguva eka mapurasi lawa yanga kusuhi. Swikatsana na ku borha ka vutomi byale makaya, leswi swivange leswaku xivumbeko xa ndyangu yi hlangana na swotala swa vutomi: byalwa, AIDS, ku biha emirini vana vahari vantsongo naku pfumaleka ka mintirho leswi swingati nyika matimba.

Muti wa Ndzhavuko wa Vatsonga

©Dr Peter Magubane
Muti wa ndzhavuko wa Xitsonga, i muti wantolovelo, lowungana wanuna, nsati kumbe vavasati va wanuna loyi, vana vavona xikan’we na mindyangu ya vana vavona va majaha loko vatekile. Ku akiwa ka tiyindlu, ta rhandzavula ti endliwe hi misava kutani ti fuleriwa hi byasi, leswi swikombisa laha Vatsonga vahumaka kona. Loko tshamelo ra muti rihambanaka kuya hi tindzhawu na tindzhawu, kambe kuna leswi swifanaka hi mimiti leyi.

Muti hi ntolovelo wuva wuri wa xivumbeko xa xirhendzevutani, ku biheleriwa jarata hi darata kumbe timhandzi. Kwala jarateni kuna xivala xa tihomu (xivala kumbe tshanga) hi le tlhelo nyana na gede ya muti leyi tirhisiwaka ku nghena e mutini, ngopfu ngopfu hile vuhuma dyambu bya muti. Minyangwa yinwana leyiyaka emasin’wini kumbe laha ku kiwaka mati yitirhisiwa hi swirho swa ndyangu.

Yindlu ya nsati lonkulu (yindlu nkulu) yiva yiri endzhaku ka xivala, laha tiyindlu ta vavasati lavan’wana tinga tava hikwala tlhelo ka yona. Wansati un’wana na un’wana una ndzhawu yayena yo swekela kona, exitangeni kumbe laha kunga endliwa hi timhandzi na timbalele, kumbe khumbi ra maribye kumbe misava. Nsati lonkulu una dulu ra yena ro hlayisela kona swakudya.

Vana va vekiwa kuhambana kuya hi rimbewu — vanhwenyana va vekiwa ekusuhi swinene na muti kutani vafana vavekiwa exikarhi xivala na gede leyikulu yonghena laha mutini. Ndzhawu yo hlawuleka (huvo), hixitalo yivekeriwe mintsandza na marhavi ya misinya yi endleriwe ehansi ka nsinya naswona hikona ku hlanganiwaka kona loko kuri na tinhlengeletano; ndzhawu yinwani i gandzelo, leringavaka kun’wana na kun’wana e mutini naswona rina xikongomelo xo hlawuleka. Ndzhawu ya vandla, yingava endzeni kumbe e handle ka muti, hi laha vavanuna va hlanganaka kona ku burisana hi vufambisi na timhaka ta muti. Laha aku pfumeleriwi vana kumbe vavasati.

Vulawuri bya muti byile mavokweni ya tatana, loyi a hloniphiwaka swinene hi nsati na vana vayena. Eka miti yalekusuhi na maxaka, xiyimo xa vavasati swiya hi nxaxameto wa leswi vanga tekisiwa xiswona e mutini. Nsati wosungula (nsati lonkulu) utshama ari nsati lonkulu; una xitulu xale henhla na xiyimo naswona u fanele ku xiximiya hilava van’wana. Xiyimo na nhlonipho eka vana naswona swiya hiku mhani wa vona ule ka xiyimo xihi emutini. Xiyimo na rimbewu hiswona swi hlohletelaka vuxaka exikarhi ka vamakwavu. Tlhandla kambirhi, milawu ya matikhomelo, timfanelo, mintirho, nasin’wana swikona eka milawu ya matikhomelo leyi nwana un’wana na un’wana a languteriwaka ku swilandzelela.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni