Ummango we Nhlangano yema Tsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Emakhaya ema Tsonga

Ngemnyaka wa 1890 emapulazini lase Lowveld labekalungele tintfo letincane kunekutingela kanye nekulima noma kufuya, base labanikati bawo bawatsengisa ngekushesha kubantfu labatsenga emamineral ngekubekela. Bantfu labakhuluma-siTsonga kulendzawo bakhokha imali yekuhlala kubalo labangekho labatsenga; lapho khonaa banikati basenta lendzawo, ticasho tikhokhelwa ngendlela (kuvame kuba nguhhafu wenhlanyelo levuniwe) noma kusebenta (ngangetinyanga letingabasitfupha emnyakeni). Njengoba emanani etindzawo akhuphuka, kanye netincenye letinkhulu te Lowveld letahlotjiswa nge sifo sembuzulwane kanye nesifo-sekulal, ticashi taphocelelwa kutsi tibe tisebenti tetivumelwano noma tishiye lelipulazi.

Tikalelwa ngemapasi ngemtsetfo kusuka kuyohlala emadolobheni, imindeni leminingi yahlala endzaweni leyayibekelwe kuhlala kwema Afrika. Kepha yaphindze yasuswa nje 'ngentfolencono' imikhankaso ngemnyaka wa 1940 yenta kuhlanganisa emakhaya labekasakatekile abe tigodzi letinkhulu, kufaka fenisi kanye nekuhlukanisa indzawo lelungele kulima kundzawo lekulinyelwa kiyo.

Ngemnyaka wa 1960 na 1970 imimango yahhitjitwa njengoba imindeni yasuswa 'kulamakhaya' emaTsonga, eGazankulu. Kutsatfwa kwemali nebuningi bebantfu kulendzawo kwenta bantfu ngekukhula kwabo batsembele emisebentini yekuhamba. Loku kwenta emadvodza kutsi ashiye imindeni yayo sikhatsi lesidze, le namuhla ngisho bomake etindzaweni letisemakhaya bafuna imisebenti yetikhatsi emapulazini ladvutane. Kuhlangene ngalesimo semphilo etigodzini, lesisento lesidze kulokuma kwalemindeni sekwente kugula noma tifo letiningi: sifo setjwala, iAIDS, kumitsa kwensha kanye nekungasebenti yintfo leseyatiwa noma leseyijwayelwe.

Emakhaya Esintfu emaTsonga

©Dr Peter Magubane
Likhaya lesintfu lemaTsonga (umuti), indzawo yekuhlala njalo, ifaka indvodza, umkayo noma bafati, nebantfwana babo kanye nemindeni yemadvodzana abo lasashadile. Lokwakhiwa kwaletindlu, letitindingilizi letinemadvonga emhlaba kanye netjani noma letifulelwe ngemhlanga, kukhombisa imvelaphi yemaTsonga. Kube kuma kwemiti kuhluka kundzawo ngendzawo, yonkhe ifana ngetintfo letitsite.

Lelikhaya libayindingilizi nelidvonga lelisikwele lesidze noma fenisi, lowakhiwe ngemagala kanye netimvutfu tetihlahla. Enkhabeni sibaya setinkhomo (xivaya noma tshanga) kubukene nendzawo yekungenela lenkhulu (lekumele isetjentiswe tihambi) ngasehlangotsini lelisempumalanga kulelikhaya. Leminye iminyango leshona emasimini nalapho kunemanti ngakhona isetjentiswa ngemalunga alomuti.

Likhaya lemfati lomdzala (umndlunkhulu) lingemuva kwale sibaya, bese leto tebafati labanye tiyigegeletile. Nguloyo umfati unendzawo yakhe yekuphekela, endlini yaguca noma noma indzawo leyakhiwe ngemhlanga, ematje noma lidvonga lemhlaba. Umndlunkhulu unelikhishi lakhe, kuvame kuba sakhiwo lesincane lesentiwe ngemapoli.

Bantfwana babekwa endlini yabo bodvwana ngebulili babo — emantfombatana abakhona kulomuti bese bafana babasemkhatsini weligede lelikhulu ne sibaya. Indzawo lebalulekile (ihuvo), levama kuvalwa ngetigodvo letiyindingilizi kanye nemagala lahleti ngaphansi kwesihlahla, lesisetjentiselwa imihlangano; lenye indzawo (igandzelo), lengaba nomakuphi kulomuti, yekwentela tinjongo tekupha. Le vandla, lengaba ngekhatsi noma ngaphandle kwemuti, ngulapho emadvodza ahlanganela khona kukhuluma ngemisebenti kanye netindzaba temuti. Kute umfati noma umntfwana lovumelekile kulendzawo.

Emandla kulomndeni asala nalobabe, lophatfwa ngenhlonipho lenkhulu ngumkakhe nebantfwana. Kulomndeni nakumndeni longetekile, kuhleleka kanye netigaba tebafati tibekeka ngendlela lapho labashada ngayo. Umfati wekucala (umfati lomdzala/lomkhulu) ngundlunkhulu; uhleleke ngendlela lephakeme nesigaba futsi kumele aniketwe inhlonipho lemufanele ngulalabanye. Kuhleleka kanye netigaba kunikwa bantfwana nabo babekwa ngekuma kwabomake babo. Kuhleleka, sigaba, nebulili kukhanyisa budlelwane phakatsi kwabobonkhe labantfwana. Ngekwengeta, imiyalo lebekiwe, lokumele bakwente, imisebenti yabo, emalungelo nekubaluleka kukhona kulendlela yekutiphatsa lapho khona ngamunye umntfwana kubhekeke kutsi akubuke noma akugadze.

Translated by Phindile Malotana