Vulavisisi byo sungula bya Vredefort Dome

© David Fleminger

Xikongomelo: Misava

Hiva 1950s, buku leyi vitaniwaka ‘Target: Earth’ yihumesiwile laha vatsari vanga hlamusela leswaku ti dinosaurs tive kona hikwalaho ka kuva kuve na kutlumbiwa loku ka maisava. Hi 1959, Robert Dietz u kambisise tindzhawu totala ta ‘crypto-explosion’ laha anga kuma ti shattercones rosungula. Dietz u vhumbe leswaku ti shattercones tita kumeka nale ka Vredefort Dome, leyi mutivi wa sayense wa Afrika Dzonga anga tihlamusela kahle endzhaku ka lembe. Dietz uyile emahlweni a kombisa ti shattercones eka Sudbury Structure lexikulu e Canada.

Eka minkarhi hinkwayo yava 50s, kuve na vulavisisi byale laboratory laha aku ringetiwa ku kombisiwa leswaku ku tlumbiwa loku kuve na xiave eka ntshikelelo wakona. Ku ringetiwa ka Nuclear ku hoxe xandla, loko vativi va sayense vakume leswaku matimba lawa yanga humesiwa hi swibuluki ya n’okise maribye lawa ya rhandzeleke leswinga leswaku kuva na metamorphics, leyifanaka na leyingava eka swirhengele.

Astro-Geologist

Hi malembe yava 1960s, vanhu va nyandlamerile kuya eka space kutani vasungula kuteka swifaniso swa satellite swa matirhelo ya nweti na misava. Leswi swi anamise miehleketo ya vativi va sayense xikan’we na vaaki. Hinkarhi walowo, ‘astro-geologist’ lieyitivekaka hi Gene Shoemaker u endle vulavisisi bya sayense bya Meteor Crater. U pimanyisile leswi anga swikuma na vulavisisi bya tindzhawu letingava na volcano. Leswi anga swikuma leswi aswinga tshamisekangi switiyisise leswaku Meteor Crater yivangiwe hikutlumbiwa loku kambe kungari volcano, cryptic kumbe swin’wana. Uyile emahlweni a tata enon’weni sayense yaku tlumbiwa loku, laha a hlamusela leswaku kutlumbiwa loku kunga endla leswaku kuva na ku cinca ka xisayense ka catastrophic eka misava, naswona leswinga humelela aswi hloli laha misaveni.

Shoemaker utlhele a dyondzisa ti astronauts hita Apollo moon kuya eka swirhengele naswona avabyela leswaku vafanele ku veka tihlo eka maribye ya lunar lawa ya tsakisaka swonghazi. Swikombiso swa maribye leswi vanga vuya na swona kusuka en’wetini aswi fana swinene na leswikumekaka laha misaveni leswinga endla leswaku ku phikizana loku akuri kona ka lunar ku fika emakumu. Namuntlha, Shoemaker u tiveka tani hi xiphemu xa ntlawa wa eponymous lexinga kuma comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, leyinga tlumba xibakabaka xa Jupiter hi 1994, na mbuyelo wotsakisa. Gene Shoemaker u hundzile emisaveni hi lembe ra 1997 naswona nkuma wa yena wu rhumeriwile en’wetini hivulavisisi bya Lunar Prospector. Xobiha xakona hileswaku vulavisisi lebyi byi helele e handle ka n’weti, leswi aswitava swi tsakise mukhalabya loyi swinene.

Vutivi byintshwa

Hiku seketeriwa hi miri wa vutivi lowu awu humelela mayelana na kuchayisiwa loku ka misava, vativi va sayense emisaveni hinkwayo vasungule ku tlhela valavisisa nakambe swirhrngele (swotani hi Nördlinger Ries Crater e Germany). Nakambe na nakambe, vakume ti shattercones, melt rocks, shock metamorphics naswin’wana swotala, leswinga hlamuseriwa laha henhla. Nongonoko wa swirhengele leswinga tekeriwa enhlokweni wuye wukula laha vaseketeri va cryptovolcanism vanga hunguteka.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni