Lucwalingo lolusha lwe Vredefort Lesandingilizi

© David Fleminger

Umphumela: Umhlaba

Ngesikhatsi sa 1950, incwadzi lebitwa 'Umphumela: Umhlaba' yakhokhwa lelapho lababhali bacolela kutsi lama dinosaur angabikhona njengemphumela wesisindvo lesikhulu se meteorite. Nga 1959, Robert Dietz wahlola incumbi ye 'kubhoma lokufihlekile' tindzawo netintfo letincane letitfoliwe ngesikhatsi sekucala. Dietz waphindze wacagela kutsi letintfo letincane titotfolwa Kundzawo Lesandingilizi eVredefort, lapho igeologist yase Ningizimu Afrika yachaza umnyaka muva. Dietz wachubeka wabona letinye tintfo letincane kuSakhiwo lesikhulu se Sudbury lesise Canada.

Ngekuhamba kwemnyaka wemashumi lasihlanu, liningi letintfo letatfolwa elabhorethri lapho khona imisebenti lesindzako yajikwa kutintfo letigadziwe kwentela kufanekisa kubhoma lokungete sisindvo lesikhashane ngekulwa ngesisindvo. Kuvela iNuclear nako kwadlala indzima letsite, uma bososayensi batfola kutsi emandla lakhululwa ngemfutfo wekubhomba kwancibikisa ematje lakhona futsi kwaphindze kwenta emametamorphic latfusako, lafana nalawo latfolwa etigodzini letinkhulu.

Le Astro yeMfundzi wematje nesihlaba

Ngesikhatsi sa 1960,emadvodza angena ngekuthula endzaweni ase acala kutsatsa titfombe te satellite tendlela ye yenyanga yemhlaba. Loku kwavula imicondvo yabo sosayensi neluntfu lonkhe ngekufana. Ngesikhatsi lesifanako, umuntfu lowenta kucala kunalabanye 'le astro-lefundza ngematje' yabita Gene Shoemaker lohola luphawu lwemfundvo yematje nesihlaba ye Sigodzi lesikhulu se Meteor. Wabese ucudzanisa lakutfolile ngekuchaza ngaletinye tindzawo letigedvukako. Umehluko lomkhulu lawutfola wavele wakhomba kutsi le Meteor Esigodzini lesikhulu yayentiwe sisindvo sentfo hhayi ngekugedvuka, hhayi ngentfo lefihlakele noma lenjani. Wachubeka wahambisa indlela yesisindvo sesayensi, anconota kutsi lesisindvo singenta umehluko ekufundvweni kwematje nesihlaba Emhlabeni, nekutsi lesisindvo lesatiwako kulomhlaba.

Shoemaker waphindze wafundzisa ema astronauts enyanga ye Apollo indlela yesakhiwo sesigodzi lesikhulu wase ubatjela kutsi bagadze ematje lachazako enyanga. Lamatje lababuya nawo nababuya enyangeni akhombisa kwetfusa lokufanako nalawo latfolwa Emhlabeni, ase ayasita ekumiseni kuphikisana kwe nyanga. Namuhla, Shoemaker watiwa kancono ngekutsi yincenye yelicembu le eponymous lelatfola lokusankhanyeti Shoemaker - Levy 9, lokwashayisa kuncenye yegesi ye Jupiter nga 1994, ngemiphumela lemihle. Gene Shoemaker washona nga 1997 kwase umlotsa wakhe wamikiswa enyangeni nge Ndlela Yekufuna iprobe. Ngalokubuhlungu, leprobe yashayisa ngetulu kwenyanga, lobekutochaza lendvodza lendzala kakhulu.

Kuphuma Nelwati

Kukhutsatwa ngulophuma kwemtimba ngelwati lwe sisindvo sentfo. Bososayensi mhlaba wonkhe bacala kuhlola tigodzi letinkhulu (njengoba iNordlinger Ries Yesigodzi Lesikhulu eJalimane). Futsi na futsi, batfola tintfoletincane, ematje lancibilikile, metamorphic letfusako kanye naletinye tintfo tesisindvo, lesetichaziwe ngetulu. Loluhla lwetintfo letichaziwe tetigodzi letikhulu takhula ngesikhatsi balandzeli be crypto-volcanism dwindle.

Translated by Phindile Malotana