Nelson Mandela na FW De Klerk hi Raymond Louw

© Eric Miller

Tinhlengeletano ta xihundla

Loko ahari e khotsweni Nelson Mandela a fanele ku ololoxa swiphiqo leswi a hlangana na swona loko angase sungula mbulavurisano na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu; a fanele a sungula a kuma nseketelo eka vabohiwa kuloni leswaku ata sungula mbulavurisano na varhangeri va mfumo naswona nhlayo ayi kanetiwa.

A fanele ku tlhela a tshembisa varhangeri lava avari e vuchavela whawha leswaku kungu rakwe rita tirha. Mbulavurisano wusungule kahle hambi leswi vanhu ava chuhile kusuka eka vurhangeri bya mfumo leswaku mubohiwa loyi angava pfuxa e hansi. Kambe, aswi hlamarisa swinene, hambi leswi akuri na vateki va mahungu kusuka e matikweni mambe laha aku tele vateki vamahungu va ndhuma laha misaveni lava ava tlhome tihlo eka mhaka leyi, mbulavurisano wuye emahlweni wuva wa xihundla.

Hambi loko mubohiwa Mandela ata humesiwa hi February 1990, xihundla xive kona swinene. Kambe mbulavurisano wuntshwa wuve kona erivaleni. U nghenelerile eka mbulavurisano wa kurhula laha hiku hatlisa anga yimisa vuthu ra matlhari ra ANC leri ari rhangeriwa hi, Umkhonto weSizwe (MK or the Spear of the Nation), leyi angayi sungula hi 1961. Kusukela kwalano u soriwe ngopfu hivaseketeri vakwe lava avatiyimiserile ku teka matlhari xikan’we na mavandla yo lwela ntshuxeko, kambe a sindzisa.

Wanuna wa xiviri

Hinkarhi lowu loko mbulavurisano wusungula kuti nyika matimba u sungule ku tshemba President de Klerk, loyi, eku heteleleni, anga nwi hlamusela tani hi wanuna wa xiviri. Loko ku langutiwa eka nkarhi wale ndzhaku ka nhlawulo, aswititkomba kahle leswaku khale ka muboohiwa Mandela, loyi atiteka tani hi wanuna wa ntiyiso ni vutlharhi loyi a lava vuxaka bya ntiyiso eka khale ka vatshikeleri vayena, a languta de Klerk hi ndlela yoleyi nayena a lava tiko ro rhula, vumundzuku bya xidimokirasi xa tiko rerhu.

Kuya ekuheleni ka lembe ra 1990 ndzi ve na nkateko waku n’wi rhamba eka ntirho wa manyunyu wa vahleri na vahumelerisi va mahungu, wa International Press Institute, kuva atava na rito eka annual general assembly e Kyoto, Japan, hinhweti ya May leyi landzelaka.

Anga koti ku amukela xirhambo lexi kufikela loko vurhangeri bya vandal ra ANC byitava byi pfumerile, leswi nga endla leswaku kuva na tinhlengeletano totala exikarhi ka mina na yena. Eka yinwana ya tinhlengeletano hi khumbe nale ka kupfuleka ka nkulukumba De Klerk loko ku burisaniwa — ngopfu ngopfu kusuka eka wanuna loyi a rhangele ku cinca, switika swinene kufikelela kuburisana. "Hi fanele ku pfuna wanuna loyi," A vula. "Una swirhalanganya swotala eka vandal rakwe.

" Leswi, himpela, akungari kucinca loko aku tikisiwa kambe wanuna loyi ari na vurhonwani loyi anga vona nkoka wa nkulukumba De Klerk loyi a khome vurhangeri na vulawuri bya vandal rakwe ra National Party, ngopfu ngopfu vavanuna va rona vokarhata swinene, lava, loko avalo n’wi cinca, aswita herisa mbulavurisano no tisa madzolonga.

A tshemba leswaku De Klerk a langutane na ntlhobtlho lowukulu swinene eka vanda rakwe na swirho leswi aswi ehleketa leswaku mbulavurisano wunga tisa kuherisiwa ka vona tani hi vanhu.

Pfhumba ra kuxisana ka thyaka

Leswi khale ka mubohiwa Mandela anga switivi hileswaku ti Nationalists, swirho na khale ka swirho swa vuhlayiseki na vatirhela mfumo na swa mavandla yokokela etlhelo aswirikarhi swita na mapfhumba yo xisana ya thyaka yaku ringeta ku vevukisa vandal ra ANC nak utiyisa nseketelo wa vandal ra vantima ntsena leringa ro kaneta ra, Inkatha Freedom Party leri rhangeriwaka hi Mangosuthu Buthelezi. Aswitikomba kahle swinene leswaku khale ka mubohiwa Mandela an’wi tshembile swinene De Klerk.

Loko valavisisi va ANC van’wi komba vumbhoni bya leswaku akuri na lava avari ku tsan’weni ntshamiseko wa tiko naku ringeta ku vevukisa ntikelo wa vandal ra ANC, yena u teke vumbhoni lebyi abyi nyiketa De Klerk leswaku abyi lavisisa, hiku tshemba leswaku De Klerk uta endla leswaku loko vumbhoni lebyi byiri na ntiyiso uta endla swinwana hiswona.

Ematshan’weni vumbhoni lebyi byi nyikiwe swirho nkulu swa maphorisa lava endzhaku ka malembe vanga vuya vapaluxiwa leswaku akuri vona vasunguri ya mapfhumba lawa na yanwana yaku endla leswaku kungavi na ntshamiseko eka vandal ra ANC. Vombhoni lebyi abyi khome mavito ya timpipi leti totala ta tona tinga vuya tinyamalala.

Kutshoviwa ka ripfumelo

Ku vuye kuva endhzaku ka nkarhi nyana laha President Mandela anga lahlekeriwa hi ntshembo eka De Klerk. Laha akuri ehenhleni ka ku thoriwa ka board ya vulawuri eka nhlangano wa vuhaxi wa tiko, South African Broadcasting Corporation, laha nkarhi walowo aku lawula mfumo wa vandal ra National Party.

Kuringana tinhweti nyana hi lembe ra 1992 na 1993 mpfhumba ra vuhaxi lebyitiyimeleke (now formed with other organisations into the Freedom of Expression Institute) byinga kutsula nhlangano wa vuhaxi eka vulawuri lebyi bya mfumo hiku sindzisa leswaku kuva na board ya vulawuri yintshwa leyi faneleke kuthoriwa hi ndlela leyi katsaka na vaaki loko kunga se hlawuriwa vanhu.

Panel ayi fanele kuhlawula mavito ya 25 lawa ayata rhumeriwa eka De Klerk, kusuka kwalaho president, hiyena loyi ata thola vanhu lavangata tirha eka board. Xin’wana xa leswingava swa nkoka eka ntwanano exikarhi ka CIB na mfumo akuri ntwanano wunwana kambe exikarhi ka Nelson Mandela na De Klerk leswaku De Klerk una mfanelo yaku vuyisa mavito lawa anga pfumelelanangiki nawona leswaku panel yita wa langutisisa kahle, kambe loko anga se endla sweswo uta sungula a burisana na Mandela kukuma swintshunxo.

De Klerk himpela u yisile 7 wa mavito eka panel, kambe a ya mahlweni a vitana panel eka tinhlengeletano leswaku ata njhekanjhekisana navona. Anga burisananga na Mandela kuya hintwanano, leswinga endla leswaku aswiteka tani hiku tshoviwa ka ntwanano.

Leswi swi endle leswaku kuva naku hlaselana hi khale ka mubohiwa Mandela on De Klerk, engopfu ngopfu eka ntirho lowu awuri e Independence Hall e Philadelphia etikweni ra United States laha hivumbirhi vanga kuma Liberty Medal kusuka eka President Bill Clinton eka siku rakutswariwa ka America hi July 4, 1993.

Ntlimbo wa tipolotiki

Hambi leswi President Mandela a tshemba leswaku De Klerk ativa hita kungu raku vevekisa vandal ra ANC kumbe anga endlanga nchumu hiswona, u teke xiboho xaku swivekela etlhelo sweswo hikuva xikongomelo nkulu xa yena akuri kutiyisisa leswaku kuna kurhula e tikweni xikan’we no fikelela mfumo wa ndzinganelo.

Loko vari e handle vuxaka bya vona abyi languteka byiri bya xinghana naswona ava angulana kahle, hambi leswi akuri na kutlulana milenge exikarhi ka vona. President Mandela waha tlhelela e Robben Island himinkarhi kuya kombeta swiyimo leswi yena na vabohiwa kuloni ava hundza eka swona hinkarhi lowu ava pfaleriwile nkarhi lowu wo leha.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni