UNelson Mandela noFW De Klerk kusho uRaymond Louw

© Eric Miller

Imihlangano Eyimfihlo

Ngesikhathi ejele uNelson Mandela kwadingeka anqobe izinkinga zangaphakathi ngaphambi kokuba aqhubekele ngokunethezeka ngezingxoxo zakhe noHulumeni woHlunyelelwane; kwakudingeka athole ukusekelwa kweziboshwa ezikanye naye ukuze aqale izingxoxo nabaholi bakahulumeni futhi inombolo yayiphikiswa. Kwakudingeka futhi akhombise ubuholi obudingisiwe ukuthi leli qhinga lalinomgangatho wokuwina.

Ngakho-ke izingxoxiswano zaqala ngokukhululekile futhi ngenhlonipho ngabaholi bakahulumeni besaba ngenxa yokuthi abanye bazozihlupha. Kodwa, ngokuphawulekayo, naphezu kokuba khona kwamaphephandaba amakhulu angaphandle angaphansi kwamaphephandaba aphethwe yizintatheli eziningi zezwe ezihlakaniphile kunazo zonke futhi zikwazi ukuthola izintatheli zendawo, izingxoxo eziyimfihlo zahlala ngaphansi kwe-wraps.

Ngisho nalapho uMandela eboshiwe ngoFebruwari 1990, izimfihlo zagcinwa. Kodwa izinkulumo ezintsha kuqale zaqala. Wangena enkulumweni yokuthula futhi ngokushesha wamisa "umzabalazo ohlomile" we-ANC ngephiko lokulwa, uMkhonto WeSizwe (MK noma iS Spear of the Nation), owawusungula ngo-1961. Wagijima ngokushesha ekugxeka abalandeli bakhe abanobudlova futhi amalungu eminye iminyango yokukhulula, kodwa waqhubeka.

Indoda Ephawulekayo

Ngalesi sikhathi njengoba izingxoxo zihlangana kancane kancane, wathola isimo sengqondo sokuthembela kuMongameli kaKlerk, naye, owamchaza ngokuthi "indoda ephawulekayo". Ukubuka emuva ngemuva kwesikhathi sokukhethwa kweposi, kusobala ukuthi uMandela owayenguboshwe, owazibheka njengendoda yobuqotho efuna ubuhlobo beqiniso nabacindezeli bakhe bangaphambili, wabheka u-Klerk ngendlela efanayo nokuthi naye wayefuna ikusasa elizinzile, lentando yeningi kulelizwe.

Ngasekupheleni kuka 1990 ngathola ithuba lokudlulisela isimemo esivela kubahleli abahloniphekile nabamemezeli, i-International Press Institute, ukubhekana nomhlangano wayo wonyaka jikelele eKyoto, eJapan, ngoMeyi olandelayo.

Akakwazanga ukwamukela kuze kube yilapho ikomidi eliphezulu lika-ANC livuma, ngakho-ke kwakukhona imihlangano eminingana phakathi kwakhe nami. Kwesinye salezi zinto sathinteka kuDe Klerk ngephutha elimangalisayo lokukhishwa kwesibhakabhaka - ikakhulukazi kumuntu ohola inguquko, naphezu kokuxoxisana. "Kumele simsize lowo muntu," esho. "Unenkathazo enkulu emphakathini wakhe."

Ngempela, lokhu kwakungeyona inguquko enonya kodwana uzwela ozwelayo oqaphela ukubaluleka kukaDe Klerk ukugcina ubuholi nokulawulwa kweNational Party yakhe, ikakhulukazi abantu bayo basendle, uma beyithatha, bangagcina izingxoxiswano bese benza ukuphikisana. Ukholelwa ukuthi uDe Klerk wayenempi ekhuphuka emphakathini wakhe namalungu ayecabanga ukuthi izingxoxo zizoholela ekuqothulweni kwabo njengabantu.

Umkhankaso Ombi Ongcolile

UMandela owayengumbanjwa akazange azi ukuthi amaNationalists, amalungu kanye namalungu angaphandle e-Security Amaphoyisa kanye nezinceku zomphakathi noma amaphiko angakwesokudla anezixhumanisi nalezi zinsizakalo ziye zaqala umkhankaso wokuzama ukwehlisa amandla i-ANC nokuqinisa ukuxhaswa komphikisi wakhe omnyama kuphela, umholi weNkatha Freedom Party uMangosuthu Buthelezi. Kwacaca ukuthi uMandela owayesejele wayemethemba uDe Klerk.

Ngesikhathi abaphenyi be-ANC bemnika amacala abonisa ukuthi kukhona "i-Third Force" ehlukumeza ngokuqinile ukuzinza kulelizwe futhi ezama ukwehlisa i-ANC, wabanikela kuDe Klerk ukuphenywa, bethemba ukuthi uDe Klerk uzoba nezinsolo eziqukethe lezo zinkantolo ukuphishekela ngenkuthalo.

Esikhundleni salokho, banikezwa amaphoyisa aphezulu, eminyakeni embalwa kamuva abonakaliswa njengabayiziqhinga "ezingcolile" kanye neminye imikhankaso yokuhlaselwa yi-ANC. Lezo zinkampani zaziqukethe amagama ommemezeli, abaningi babo abavele banyamalala.

Ukuphulukiswa kokholo

Kamuva nje uMongameli Mandela walahlekelwa ukholo kuDe Klerk. Kwakungaphezu kokuqokwa kwebhodi elisha labaphathi lomsakazo wombuso, iNhlangano yaseSouth African Broadcasting Corporation, okwakube yilapho ilawulwa ngokuqinile nguhulumeni kaZwelonke.

Kwaphela izinyanga eziningana ngo-1992 no-1993 uMkhankaso Wokusakaza Ozimele (okwakhiwe manje nezinye izinhlangano ezingena kwi-Freedom of Expression Institute) zambambe umsakazo ekulawulweni kukahulumeni ngokuphoqelela ukuba kuvumelwane ukuthi ibhodi elisha elizimele kufanele liqokwe ngenqubo ehilela ukuzwa komphakathi kwabaphenyi ngaphambi kwephaneli lokukhetha.

Iphaneli kwakufanele ukhethe amagama angu-25 ayothunyelwa kuDe Klerk, khona-ke umongameli, ngokuqokwa ebhodini. Isici esiyinhloko sesivumelwano phakathi kwe-CIB nohulumeni kwakuyisivumelwano esengeziwe phakathi kukaNelson Mandela noDe Klerk ukuthi uDe Klerk uyoba nelungelo lokubhekisa amagama awazange avume ukubuyela emuva kuphaneli ukuze ahlolisise, kodwa ngaphambi kokuba enze njalo ukuphikisana noMandela ukuze bakwazi ukuxazulula le nkinga.

U-De Klerk wenze ngempela amagama ayisikhombisa emuva kwiphaneli, kodwa waqhubeka futhi wabiza amalungu ephaneli emihlanganweni lapho ephikisana nayo.

Akazange akhulume ngokuphikisana kwakhe noMandela, owabheka lokhu njengokuphula umthetho. Lokhu kwaholela ekuhlaselweni okubuhlungu kukaMandela ejele eDe Klerk, ikakhulukazi emcimbini eHholo Lobu Independence e Philadelphia e-United States lapho bobabili bathola uMdabu Wenkululeko kuMandela uBill Clinton ngosuku lokuzalwa kukaMelika, ngoJulayi 4, 1993.

Ukuphikisana kwezombusazwe

Nakuba uMongameli Mandela ekholelwa ukuthi uDe Klerk wayazi izinhlelo zokunciphisa i-ANC noma akenzanga lutho, wayenquma ngenhloso yokulondoloza uhulumeni wobumbano wezwe kanye nokugcina ukuthula kuleli zwe ukubeka ingxabano ngemuva kwakhe. Ubuhlobo babo ebusweni bebuhle futhi baqhubeka bexoxa, nakuba kwakukhona ukungezwani kwezombusazwe phakathi kwabo.

UMongameli Mandela ubuyela emuva eRobben Island ngezikhathi ezithile ukukhombisa izimo ezikhuthazwe nguye kanye nozakwabo ngesikhathi beboshwa isikhathi eside.

Translated by Nsika Khoza