Iimpukani

© Marinda Louw

Ngaphandle kokutswenya, iimpukani zingathwala amalwelwe begodu zingaba nomthelela omumbi emaphilweni wezinye iinlwane, khulukhulu emahlelweni zokukhiqiza eqinileko laphanyana iinlwane zibekwa khona ndawonye. Irhubhululo lesimini litjengise bona iinkomo zebisi zingalahlekelwa phakathi kwamaminithi ayi-25 kuze kube ama-iri amahlanu esikhathi sokudla ngelanga ngesibanga setjhada lempukani.

Ukuphathwa

©Rykie Visser - Agrinet
Indlela engcono khulu yokuqalana neempukani ifaka hlangana ihlelo lokuphatha, lapha kusetjenziswa iindlela ezihlukahlukeneko. Umqopho weneendlelezi kufanele bona kube ukugcina iinomboro zeempukane ezincani. Nazi iinyeleliso ezinhlanu zokunciphisa inani leempukani:

Kokuthoma, nciphisa iinomboro zembungu namaqanda ngokobana ufune iindawo lapha iimpukani zikwazi ukubelethela khona. Iimpukane zithanda ukubelethela emanzini kanye nakwezinye izinto ezibolileko, njeke kuqakathekile bona uhlalise iinlwane neendawo zokukhiqiza zihlwengekile. Iinlwane ezigulako nezinenlonda kufanele zitlhogonyelwe msinya ukwenzela bona zingahlalwa zimpukani ibegodu zikhandele ukutheleleka kwesibili. Iinlwane ezifileko kufanele zisuswe eendaweni yokukhiqiza msinya ngendlela ekungarhonakala ngayo begodu zilahlwe ngendlela ehlwengekileko. Kufuze zitjhiswe nanyana zibulungwe.

Indawo yokukhiqizwa kufuze ihlanzwe ngeekhathi zoke umsuqwa, iinzibi, indawo yokulala esilaphazekileko, ukudla okuphelileko kanye namaqanda aphukileko kufanele kususwe, nawufuye iinkukhu, kufuze ulawulwe kuhle. Lokha iinlwane zingadli koke ukudla kwazo, ukunciphisa okusalako ukwenzela bona ungashiyi litho elingadliwa zimpukani.

Umsuqwa iinzibi kulungile, kodwana umsuqwa kufanele utlhogonyelwe kuhle ukukhandela bona ungarherhi iimpukani. Indawo yomsuqwa kufanele ibe kwenye indawo ukusuka endaweni yokukhiqiza.

©Shem Compion
Okwesibili, imvelo mnganakho. Ezinye iimbungu kanye namapharasayidi zidla amaqanda wempukane nembungu. Amanaba wemvelo la, angahle akhishwe eendaweni yokukhiqiza eekhathini ezimbalwa ngonyaka egodu asiza khulu lokha iimpukane zihlakulele ukuphikiswa kweendlela zokulawula amakhemikhali. Kodwana, kuyinto ebiza khulu begodu kuvamise uunganeli emanabeni nxazoke lokha ukutlhoga khulu. Njeke-ke akukafaneli kusetjenziswe njengendlela yokuzijamela.

©Marinda Louw
Okwesithathu, sebenzisa izicupho kanye nezinto eziqotha iimpukani. Amakhoyili wempukani enza umsebenzi omuhle ekunciphiseni iinomboro zempukane lokha zisetshenziselwa ngaphakathi kwezindlu zelwane, ngaphandle ungasebenzisa iinthiyo ezinokudla kwempukane. Kwaphela iinthiyo ezinokudla zinomraro munye wokunuka kumbi.

Iimpukani azithandi iindawo ezinzima, zivame ukutholakala eendaweni ezikhanyako ezakhiweni zeenlwane. Abanye abalimi basebenzisa amakari ebodeni lezindlu ukwenzela banciphisa ukukhanya khulu. Iinlwane nazo zizokwazi ukuthola umthunzi ongezelelweko lokha nakushisako.

Abanye abalimi batjale amakhambi athize azombeleze iindawo yokukhiqiza nanyana basebenzisa amafutha aqakathekileko ebaqotha ngawo iimpukani.

Okwesine, sebenzisa iindlela zokulawula amakhemikhali ngendlela efaneleko. Ukulawulwa kwamakhemikhali kungaba yipumelelo khulu lokha kusetjenziswa ngendlela efaneleko begodu ngokuya ngendlela olayelwe ngayo. Ukusetjenziswa okungakalungi akugcini ngokufaka amaphilo engozini, kodwana kungabangela nokobana iimpukani zijamelane namakhemikhali. Amakhemikhali wanamhlanjesi kufanele asetjenziswe kuhle, njengombana lokho kuphephe khulu, okuhloswe khulu godu kuvumelana ngokwemvelo kunenunwana zakade ze-organophosphate insecticides nanyana i-DDT.

Ikhona Imikhiqizo ukufuze iqalane neempukani nanyana iimbungu begodu isetjenziswa nanyana kusenlwaneni. Eminye yemikhiqizo le irherha iimpukani.

Irhubhululo litjengise bona imiraro yeempukani engaba yi-40% kuya kweyi-60% ingasuswa ngokuqalisisa isigaba sembungu.

Okwesihlanu yenze iphrojekthi yomphakathi. Akunandaba bona ihlelo lakho lokuphathwa kweempukani lihle kangangani, ngekhe litjho litho nangabe abomakhelwane bakho benganaki iinomboro zeempukani emaplasini wabo nanyana iinqephu zabo. Ukusetjenziswa ndawonye kungcono begodu kutjhibhe khulu kunokusebenza uwedwa.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe