Ukuhlukana Kobulili Emphakathini wamaPedi

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukukhula koMbuso wamaPedi

Ekuphakameni kwamandla abo uPedi noma uMaroteng, ngaphansi kobuholi bukaThulare (cishe ngo-1790-1820), baqala ukuhlasela ngokuphindaphindiwe kwabantu abazungezile. Baletha indawo enkulu esendaweni yendawo ekhona manje e-Rustenburg empumalanga kuya e-Lowveld entshonalanga, futhi isuka eningizimu kuya eMfuleni weVaal (izifunda ezaziwa namuhla ngokuthi i-Waterberg ne-Soutpansberg), ngaphansi kolawulo lwePedi.

I-Pedi yanda ngamanani namandla, ihlanganisa nomakhelwane abaningi nakakhulu endaweni yabo. Ngaphansi kweThulare enamandla, umbuso wePedi wagcwala futhi uMaroteng hegemony wafinyelela iphuzu eliphakeme kakhulu. Ithonya likaThulare lalingakaze libe ngumholi ongokomoya weqembu elizungezile okwakungekho ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwePedi ngqo. Ngo-1824, ekufeni kukaThulare, waphumelela ngamadodana ayisishiyagalombili, uMalekutu, owazama ukuqhubeka nokwandisa indawo yePedi yethonya.

Ukuhlukana kwamaPedi Ezansi

Ukuhlonishwa kukaMalekutu wePedi akuzange kuhlale isikhathi eside, futhi umlando ukhona, wayenobuthi nomunye wabafowabo. I-Pedi yayingavamile lapho abahlaseli be-Nguni bebetha eningizimu. Izazi-mlando zihlukaniswe ngokuthi ngabe abahlaseli babeMatabele ngaphansi kobuholi bukaMzilikazi, noma iqembu likaNdwandwe ngaphansi kobuholi bukaZwangendaba, owayephumile kuZwide ngemuva kokunqotshwa yiShaka. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi yikuphi, iPedi yadabuka futhi wonke amadodana kaThulare, ngaphandle kwaSekwati, abulawe. Abahlaseli be-Nguni bahlala isikhathi esingangonyaka, lapho bevuna khona zonke izitshalo ababengakwenza futhi bahlambalaza izinkomo. Amaqembu amaningi azungezile aphelelwa yindlala futhi kuthiwa, ngokusho kwemithombo yamanje yomsakazo, bakholelwa ekutheni basebenzise ubuthongo.

U-Sekwati wabaleka, yiziphi izixazululo akwazi ukuzenza ezihlangene zesizwe samaPedi, ngaphesheya koMfula i-Olifants. Kwaphela iminyaka emine bafuna ukuphephela endaweni eyakhelene nabo, futhi balandisa, izikhulu zikaRamapulana. Bahlaselwa ngezikhathi ezithile ngokumelene nezindawo ezincane, okwathi lapho babamba khona abesifazane nezinkomo. Ekugcineni uSeati wawela uMfula i-Olifants wabe esungula indlunkulu yakhe ePhiring. Kancane kancane wahlanganisa ndawonye izihlaka ezihlakazekile zeqembu lePedi futhi waphinde wamisa ukubusa kweMaroteng endaweni. Wakwazi ukumelana nokuhlasela okuvela eSwazi naseZulu, ngokuhoxisa ezintabeni ezizungeze izintaba, ekugcineni kwakheka inhloko-dolobha yakhe eTéate, ngaphansi komthambeka osempumalanga weLeolo Mountains.

Ukuthula Okungelula

Ngo-1845 umholi weBoer uHendrik Potgieter wahlala empumalanga ye-Steelpoort, lapho esungula i-Ohrigstad yanamuhla. Ngomhlaka 5 kuJulayi ngalowo nyaka uPotgieter noSekwati basayina isivumelwano, banikeza isihloko sePotgieter kulo mhlaba. Kukhona ukuthula okungahambi kahle phakathi kwePedi kanye nezinombolo ezikhulayo zeBoers, ezigqunywe yizinkomo ezihlaselwa ngezikhathi ezithile ngamaphekula okulwa nePedi neBoer. Ukufinyeleleka kwePedi kulesi sikhali bekubekwe ngalesi sikhathi. Inhloko ephakeme isiqalile ukuthumela amaqembu ezinsizwa ukuba asebenze njengabahambeli bezisebenzi eKapa, ​​eDelagoa Bay naseDaymond amasimu eNyakatho Kapa.

Ngawo-1870, umuntu ngamunye owayebuya emsebenzini wayekhokha u-£ 1 ukuya phambili, owawusetshenziselwa ukuthenga izibhamu nezinhlamvu. Ngemuva kokufa kukaSekwati kwakukhona izingxabano phakathi kwamadodana akhe amabili, uSekhukhune noMampuru, mayelana nokulandelana kokubaluleka. Lokhu kwakwandiswa ukutholakala kwaBoers, owabeka usongo ku-Pedi igunya eliqhubekayo.

Ukuphumelela kokugcina kukaSekhukhune ekuqukethe lezi zingxabano, futhi ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi uyindlalifa, kubonakala ekwenzeni kwakhe ukubiza impi yamadoda avela kumakhomishana angaphansi kwakhe, ukuze agweme ukuhlubuka kwamanye amakhosi ayengenelisekile ngokubusa kwakhe.

Ekuqaleni iSekhukhune yayinobudlelwane obuseduze nabakwaBoers, kodwa ukuqinisa imizabalazo yomhlaba kanye nokusebenza kwabasebenzi kwakubhebhetheka kwaze kwaba yilapho ekugcineni, ngo-16 Meyi 1876, iTransvaal Volksraad yamemezela impi ngemuva kokuzwa amahemuhemu mayelana nokuhlaselwa kwePedi endaweni yaseBoer yaseLydenburg. Abahlukumezi baseBoer bahlukunyezwa kakhulu. Ezinyangeni ezimbili kamuva uSir Theophilus Shepstone wanezela iRiphabhuliki yaseTransvaal egameni leBritish Crown, okuyingxenye eyayiqhutshwa yi-Boer ukwehluleka ukulawula iPedi.

Ngemuva kokuthi iMpi YeZulu iphelile ngoJulayi 1879, uSir Garnet Wolseley (High Commissioner for South-Eastern Africa), eqiniseka ukuthi uSekhukhune uzofaka isicelo sokuthula, unikeze izimo ezimbi, ukufaka izinkomo ze-Sekhukhune 2 500. USekhukhune wenqabe le migomo, uSir Garnet wabamba iqhaza lamadoda angama-12 000, kuhlanganise nabangu-8 000 baseSwazini. Ngo-28 Novemba 1879, ngemuva kokulwa okunamandla lapho kwabulawa khona abahlaseli basePedi abangaphezu kuka-1 000, uSekhukhune washona ekugcineni. Wathunjwa emhumeni wabe eseboshiwe ePitoli. Futhi, ngalokhu, umbuso wePedi wabhujiswa ekugcineni.

Translated by Nsika Khoza