Umlandvo wemaPedi

© Dr Peter Magubane

Kukhulisa Sive semaPedi

Ngebudze bemandla abo lama Pedi noma emaMaroteng, langaphansi kwemuholi Thulare (ngemnyaka wa 1790 kuya ku 1820), bekavetwa njalonjalo, kususwa lokuyimphumelelo kwebantfu basendzaweni. Baletsa indzawo lengetiwe lechubekela kusuka kulendzawo lekhona-nalamuhla iRustenburg lese Mpumalanga kuya eTindzaweniletiphansi letise nshonalanga, tihambela eningizimu kuya eMfuleni iVaal (letigodzi letatiwako namuhla njenge Waterberg ne Soutpansberg), lengaphansi kwemtsetfo wemaPedi

Lama Pedi akhula ngetinomboloo nangekucina, angenisa bomakhelwane labaningi ekutiphatseni kwabo. Ngaphansi kwemandla aThulare, le sive semaPedi sachakaza ne Maroteng yafika endzaweni lesetulu. Simo sa Thulare sasingendlela leyenta kutsi aphindze abe ngumholi lonemoya ngemacembu lamugegeletele labekadze angekho ekuphatfweni ngema Pedi. Ngemnyaka wa 1824, ngekushona kwa Thulare, waphunyeleliswa ngemadvodzana akhe lamadzala lasiphohlongo, Malekutu, lowetama kuchubeka akhulise lendzawo yemaPedi ngendlela labengiyo.

Kususwa kwemaPedi aseNingizimu

Buholi baMalekutu bemacembu lamancane ebantfu labanelulwimi kanye nemiyalo minye yemaPedi abutange butsatse sikhatsi lesidze njengoba, lichawe lalinekutsi, wafakwe umcondvo lomubi ngumunye wabomnakabo. Lama Pedi abekulokukhulu kukhatsateka ngesikhatsi emaNguni awangenela ngase ningizimu. Bahlukaniseka ngekutsi kumbe lalabahlaselako bekukadze kungeMatabele langaphansi kwemmholi Mzilikazi, noma intfo yemaNdwandwe langaphansi kwemholi wase Zwangendaba, lobekadze abaleke wasuka kuma Zwide ngemuva kwekwehluleka etandleni ta Shaka.

Noma ngumuphi umcimbi, lamaPedi enganywa kwatsi onkhe emadvodzana aka Thulare, ngekungafani kwa Sekwati, abulawa. Labangeneli bema Nguni bahla kwaba ngumnyaka, lelapho bavuna konkhe labakukhona lobekulinyiwe base bangenela lendzawo yetinkhomo. Emacembu lamaningi akabanga nalutfo futsi atsenjwa, ngekuya kwalamuhla tintfo letibonwako, kugucukela ekudleni labanye bantfu.

Sekwati wabaleka, ngaloko lokuncane labekasele nako wakhona kuhlanganisa sive semaPedi, labekangase Mfuleni we Olifants. Eminyakeni lemine balungisa indzawo yekubhacela kubomakhelwane, nekuhlobana, nesigodlo sa Ramapulana. Benta sikhatsi sekungenela tindzawo tekuhlalela letincane, ngesikhatsi lapho babamba besifazane kanye netinkhomo.

Sekwati wagcine ewele lo Mfula we Olifants wasungula lihhovisi lakhe lelikhulu ePhiring. Kancane kancane wabuyisa ndzawonye letintfo lebetisakakile telicembu lemaPedi waphindze wasungula kabusha kukhulisa iMaroteng kulendzawo. Wakhona kuvikela kuhlaselwa lokwakuchamuka emaSwatini kanye nemaZulu, ngekutsi atikhokhe kulendzawo tetintsaba letiphangisako, wagcine asungule lidolobha lake eTéate, ngaphansi kwetiNtsaba te Leole lebetiphakeme nganhlanye emphumalanga.

Kuthula Lokungamelula

Ngemnyaka wa 1845 umholi wemaBhunu Hendrik Potgieter wahlala emphumalanga ye Steelpoort, lapho atfola indzawo lesekhona-nalamuhla iOhrigstad. Ngenyanga yaKholwane natisihlanu kulowomnyaka Potgieter na Sekwati basayina sivumelwane, aniketa Potgieter imvumo yendzawo yakhe. Kuthula lokungamelula kwaba khona phakatsi kwemaPedi kanye nembolo lebeyikhula yemaBhunu, imibuto ngesikhatsi sekutsatfwa kwetinkhomo ngemaPedi nemaBhunu labekahlasela. Kuvunyelwa kwemaPedi kutilimato kute kubengulesikhatsi kwachubekiswa. Sikhulu lesisenhloko besesicale kutfumela emacembu emadvodza lamancane kutsi asebente njengetisebenti tekuhamba kumasimu, aseKapa lase Kapa lese Nyakatfo.

Ngemnyaka wa 1870, ngayinye indvodza lebuya emsebentini yayibhadala lilangeni kulendzawo yekubaluleka, lebeyisetjentiselwa kutsenga tibhamu kanye netinhlavu. Ngemuva kwekushona kwa Sekwati kwabakhona kungaboni ngaliso linye emkhatsini kwemadvodzana akhe lamabili, Sekhukhune na Mampuru, ngemphumelelo yendzawo lebalulekile. Loku kwangetetelwa bukhona balamaBhunu, lanika kwetfusa ngekuchubeka kwemandla emaPedi.

Imphumelelo ya Sekhukhune yekuchubeka nekubamba lokucabana, kanye nekutfola kumukelwa njengendlalifa, kwabayintfo layibonako ngemandla akhe kutsi atjele emabutfo akhe emadvodza lalwako laska etigodzini kutsi ete kusakhe, entela Kubeka phansi kuhlukunyetwa nguletinye tikhulu kutsi tingangenelani nekuphatsa kwakhe.

Sekhukhune abekadze anebudlelwane nemaBhunu, kepha kuhluphekela indzawo kanye nemsebenti kwabona loku kahle kwate kwaba sekugcineni, ngenyanga yeNkhwenkhweti natilishumi nesitfupha kumnyaka wa 1876, iTransvaal Volksraad yasusa imphi ngemuva kwekuva emahemuhemu ngekuchubeka kwekuhlaselwa kwemaPedi esigodzini semaBhunu ase Lydenburg. Lama Bhunu labekahlupha atfola kwehlulwa. Tinyanga letimbili muva Umnumzane Theophilus Shepstone watsatsa le Transvaal yeSive esikhundleni seMchele wema British, kancane ngekwehluleka kwemaBhunu ngekutsi basuse lamaPedi.

Ngemuva kwekuphela kwemphi yama Zulu ngenyanga Kholwane emnyakeni wa 1879, uMnumzane Garnet Wolseley (Khomishina Lophakeme we Afrika yeNingizimu-Mpumalanga), ngekutitsemba kutsi Sekhukhune utoboshelwa kuthula, utonikwa timo letiningi, utobhadalisa Sekhukhune Tinkhulungwa Letimbili nemakhulu lasihlanu etinkhomo. Sekhukhune akativumelananga naleyondlela, wase uMnumzane Garnet watfumela emasotja emadvodza labengaba tinkhulungwane letilishumu nakubili, kufaka ekhatsi emabutfo ase Swatini labekatinkhulungwane letisiphohlongo. Ngenyanga yeLweti kumnyaka wa 1879, ngemuva kwekulwa lokubadlwana lapho khona emabutfo emaPedu labekangetulu kwenkhulungwane abulawa, Sekhukhune wehluleka lapho. Wavalelwa emhomeni wase uboshelwa ePitoli. Bese, ngaloku, lesive sema Pedi satfolwa kwehlulwa kanjalo nje.

Translated by Phindile Malotana