Ukohlulwa Ngokwe Sini Phakathi kwama Pedi

© Dr Peter Magubane

Ukukhulisa Ubukhosi bama Pedi

Ngexesha ama Pedi okanye oMaroteng ayeziva enamandla, phantsi kokukhokhelwa ngu Thulare (Ngeminyaka yoo 1790 -1820), babehamba begqogqa rhoqo kuluntu oluhlala kufuphi kwaye babene mpumelelo. Bathenga indawo enkulu esukela kwindawo eyaziwa nge Rustenburg kulemihla engasekhohlo emazantsi wase ntshona, kwaye kumazantsi womlambo iVaal River (iziphaluka ezaziwa namhlanje njenge Waterberg ne Soutpansberg), phantsi kolawulo lwama Pedi.

Ama Pedi akhula ngamanani nangamandla, besongeza abamelwane kwindawo abahlala kuyo. Phantsi kolawulo lika Thulare owayena mandla, ubukhosi bama Pedi bakhula ngempumelelo ze iMaroteng hegemony yafikelela kwindawo ephezulu. Udumo luka Thulare lwamenza de wabayi nkokheli kamoya yamaqela angqungileyo kwaye angekho phantsi kolawulo lwama Pedi. Ngonyaka ka 1824, ukufa kuka Thulare, kwabekwa omdala konyana bakhe abasibhozo (8), ogama lingu Malekutu, waqhubeka ke ukuzama ukwandisa udumo lwama Pedi.

Ugqogqo lwama Pedi ku Mazantsi

Ubukhosi buka Malekutu phakathi kwama Pedi abuzange buqhubeke ixesha elide, kuvakala okokuba watyiswa ityhefu ngomnye wabantakwabo. Ama Pedi abhideka ezingqondweni xa ugqogqo lwama Nguni lwaluhlasela ngaku Mazantsi. Abembali bangqondo zimbini ngokokuba abahlaseli yayingama Matabele phantsi kwesikhokhelo sika Mzilikazii, okanye icala lika Ndwandwe phantsi kwesikhokhelo sika Zwangendaba, owaye qhekeke ku Zwide emveni kokoyiseka phantsi kwezandla zika Tshaka.

Kwezi zonke izehlo, ama Pedi othuka kunye nabo bonke oonyana baka Thulare, ngaphandle ko Sekwati, babulawa. Abagqogqi bama Nguni bahlala ixesha elingango nyaka, xesha elo bathi bavuna zonke izivuno bahluba umhlaba wenkomo. Amaqela amaninzi angqongileyo aye ahleleka kwaye kukholeleka, ngokuvakala kulemihla, baphela bezizidla zenyama yoluntu (cannibalism).

U-Sekwati wabaleka, noko wathi wakwazi ukuqokelela kwakusele kushiyekile kwisizwe sama Pedi, ukunqumla umlambo i-Olifants iminyaka emine (4) bafuna ukhuseleko kwindawo ezikufuphi, nokufanayo ubukhosi buka Ramapulana. Babesenza ugqogqo ngamaxesha athile kwindawo zokuhlla ezincinci, apho babebamba abafazi neenkomo.

Ethubeni uSekwati waphinda wanqumla umlambo i-Olifants River ze waseka ikomkhulu lakhe ePhiring. Kancinci wazisa okwakusasazekile kweqela lama Pedi waphinda waseka ukuphatha kwe Maroteng ekuhlaleni. Wakwazi ukunyamezela uhlaselo lwama Swazi nama Zulu ngokuthi ahambe ayokuhlala kwintaba ezikufuphi, ze komkhulu walenza eTéate, phantsi kumantla entaba iLeolo.

Uxolo Olungonwabisiyo

Ngonyaka ka 1845 inkokheli yama bhulu uHendrik Potgieter wahlala eMazantsi eSteelpoort, apho wathi waseka indawo eyaziwa ngokuba yi Ohrigstad. Ngomhla ka July kwakulonyaka umnye uPotgieter no Sekwati batyikitya isivumelwano soxolelaniso, ze wanikeza uPotgieter iimpepha zomhlaba wakhe. Uxolo olungonwabisiyo lwabakhona phakathi kwama Pedi kunye nenani lamabhulu elalisanda, babephazamiseka lugqogqo lwenkomo olalusenziwa ngama Pedi ehlaselana nama Bhulu. Ukufumana izixhobo kwama Pedi kwakondisiwe ngeloxesha. Ikumkani ebalulekileyo yayiqalisile ukuthumela amaqela abafana abasebancinci emisebenzini bayokusebenza njengabasebenzi aba ngabaphambukeli eKapa, Delagoa Bay nakumabala edayimane eNorthern Cape.

Ngeminyaka yo 1870’s ndoda nganye ebuyela emsebenzini yayibhatala imali engange £1 kulowo ubalulekileyo uphetheyo, mali leyo yayisetyenziswa ukuthenga imipu ne mbumbulu. Emveni kokufa kuka Sekwati kwabakho ingxabano phakathi konyana bakhe ababini, uSekhukhune no Mampuru, malunga nokuba ngubani ozakuthabatha indawo yobukumkani. Oku kwakusenziwa nzima bubukho bama bhulu awayeqhubeka enobungozi kwaba semagunyeni bama Pedi.

Ukuphumelela kuka Sekhukhune ekuthinteleni iingxabano, nokuziseka njenge ndlalifa, kwakubonakala ekukwazini ukubiza imikhosi yabalwayo kwikumkani ezingaphantsi kwakhe, ukuze aphelise uvukelwana olwenziwa zezinye iinkosi ezingasawulandeliyo umthetho.

Ekuqaleni uSekhukhune wayenobu dlelwane bobuhlobo namabhulu, kodwa eqinisa imfazwe ngemihlaba nemisebenzi kwaye konke oko kutshabalala de ekugqibeleni nge 16 May 1876, iTransvaal Volksraad yapapasha umlo emveni kokuva amahem-hem ngohlaselo olwalucwangciswa ngama Pedi lokulwa kwilali yama Bhulu ase Llydenburg. Abakhohlakali bama Bhulu boyisakala ngokuphandle. Emveni kwenyanga ezimbini uSir Theophilus Shepstone wandisa iTransavaal Republic endaweni yama Britane, kodwa bohlulwe kukoyisakala kwamabhulu nokohlulakala ukoyisa ama Pedi.

Ekupheleni komlo wama Zulu ngo July ka 1879, uMnumzana Garnet Wolsely (Umkomisani ophezulu eMzantsi – Mpuma Afrika), eqinisekile okokuba uSekhukhune uzakuleqa uxolo, wamnikeza ithuba lokukhetha, esohlwaya uSekhukhune imihlambi yenkomo engama 2 500. uSekhukhune akazange avumelane noku, ze uMnumzana Garnet wadibanisa umkhosi wamadoda angama 12 000, kunye namaqhawe ama Swazi angama 8 000. Ngomhla we 28 November 1879, emveni kwemfazwe apho amajoni ama Pedi angapha kwama 1 000 athi abulawa, uSekhukhune wathi woyisakala ekugqibeleni. Wafumaneka emqolombeni wabanjwa ePitoli. Emveni koko ubukhosi bama Pedi batshabalala ekugqibeleni.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie