Umculo Wama Tsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Inkcubeko Etyebileyo Yomculo

Uhlanga lwamaTsonga ludume kakhulu ngenkcubeko yalo etyebileyo yomculo. Lenkcubeko isekelwe phezu kwezixhobo ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zomculo. Ezi zingahlulwa kathathu: Ezamasinkari, umoya kunye namagubu.

Ezona zixhobo zesinkari ezibalulekileyo ziquka uhadi olubizwa nge (xizambi). Esi sixhobo sidlalwa ngokuthi umculi abambe isinkari (mhlawumbi isenokuba ngumtya okanye ixolo lomthi) ngamazinyo, ukuze kuphume isandi; ikhuni elinemingxunya ephuma isandi liyakhuhlelwa ngezantsi nangasentla. Kufuneka oku kwenziwe kuhambelane nesingqi somculo.

Ixitendze luhadi olunengqayi olubotshelelwe kuyo, nebayiyo ekhupha isandi somculo. Imgangala, nesadlalwayo nanamhla oku, yingcongolo ekhutshwe umphakathi nedlwalwa ngeminwe, logama yona ixipendana iluhadi olufakelwe amacingo kunye nendawo yokubamba etsalwa ngentsimbi etyebileyo.

Izixhobo zomoya zona zezi: ifluti (xitiringo) enemingxunya emithathu, imibhobho yomalusi (nanga), kunye ne (mhalamhala).

©Dr Peter Magubane
Izixhobo ezingamagubu zona ziquka iitambourine kunye namagubu. Itambourine (tsomane) embaca erawndi ikhaliswa ngamagqirha xa benyanga abantu abanemimimoya engcolileyo.

Amagubu aquka indzumba kunye ne xigubu, zidlalwa xa kusoluka amakhwenkwe okanye amantombazana. Ze yona ingoma isetyenziswe kwmixhentso yemibhiyozo. Izixhobo ezibini (zozibini zinemvelaphi engaphandle kohlanga lwamaTshona) zingaphandle kwezi zigaba: Ipiano yesandla enamaqhosha asibhozo enkcenkce, amalunga ne 10 sentimitha (4 inches) ubude ze ibeyi sentimitha enye ububanzi, ifakelwe ezantsi kwiplanga elincinane. Esi sixhobo sidlalwa ngokucofa lamaqhosha enkcenkce. Esinye isixhobo yintlobo ethile ye xylophone enamaqhosha weplanga kunye neengqayi zokukhupha isandi.

Umculo wamaTsonga sele utshintshile ukusukela ngeminyaka eyaqala ukushicilelwa ngayo yoo 1920. Namhlanje, kungenzeka ukuba ngowona mculo udumileyo kwimiculo exhaphakileyo, odibanisa izithethe zesintu kunye nezamanye amazwe.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana