Izingoma zamaTsonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Usiko Olucwebile Lezingoma

I-Tsonga iyaziwa kakhulu ngefa labo elicebile lomculo elisekelwe ekubetheni izinsimbi ezihlukahlukene zomculo. Lezi zingahlukaniswa zibe izigaba ezintathu: izinsimbi ezinezintambo, imimoya kanye ne-percussion.

Izinsimbi zomculo ezinezintambo ezibaluleke kunazo zonke zihlanganisa umnsalo wokududuza ongaqanjwanga (xizambi), odlalwa ngumculi ophethe isicingo (ngokuvamile ugoqa noma i-twine) emazinyweni akhe, ukuze ahlasele; induku nama-resonators okuzungezile ixubha phezulu nangaphansi phansi okushiwo umnsalo, ngesikhathi somculo. I-xitendze ingumnsalo onesibopho esivumelwaneni kuso esisebenza njenge-resonator. I-mgangala, isadlalwa namhlanje, ingumnsalo ongenalutho ogoqwe ngeminwe, kuyilapho i-xipendana ingumnsalo olinezintambo ngesibambo esinyanyisiwe esithwetshiwe ngensimbi yensimbi.

Izinsimbi zomculo ziyizimpondo eziphambene (xitiringo) ezinezimbobo ezintathu, amapayipi omalusi (nanga), kanye nophondo lwe-antelope trumpet (mhalamhala).

©Dr Peter Magubane
Izingoma zokuxubha zihlanganisa amathangamu namadubhu. I-drum (flat) i-flat drum (i-tsomane) idlalwe ngababhula ukuphatha abantu abanomoya obi. Izigubhu zihlanganisa i-ndzumba ne-xigubu, idlala ngokuqalwa kwabafana nabafana, kanye ne-dance, esetshenziswe emidlalweni yemikhosi. Izinsimbi zombili (hhayi zomdabu waseTsonga) ziwela ngaphandle kwalezi zigaba: ipiyano ngesandla enezingxenye eziyisishiyagalombili zensimbi, cishe amasentimitha angu-10 ubude nobude obuyizingalo eziyi-1, izinkuni, idlala ngokushaya izigqoko zensimbi; enye enye ifomu ye-xylophone enekhibhodi ngokhuni kanye ne-resonator ye-calabash.

I-tsonga umculo ishintshile kusukela okokuqala ibhalwa kuma-1920. Namuhla kungenzeka ukuthi yi-crossover umculo ethandwa kakhulu ezweni, ukuhlanganisa amasiko wendawo nokungeniswa.

Translated by Nsika Khoza