Ukutshintsha Nokwanda kwabaTswana

Imvelapho yabaTswana Bokuqala

©Dr Peter Magubane
Luncinci ulwazi olukhoyo mayelana nemvelaphi yabantu abathetha ulwimi lweSesotho, nabayinxalenye yohlanga lwabaTswana. Ngokwembali ebaliswa ngomlomo, oluhlanga lwaluphakathi kwabantu abathetha ulwimi lwaBantu, nababesuka kwiindawo zase Mpuma Afrika (East African Great Lakes - Victoria kunye nase Tanganyika). Olu hlanga ke lwathi lwafudukela emazantsi ngokuhamba kwamakhulu eminyaka.
Le mbali ke ithi babengabantu banye, baze baqhekeka babazintlanga/amaqqela ohlukeneyo. Kanye nje ngohlanga lwaBasotho, indlela abahlala ngazo kunye nendawo abahlala kuzo zazichatshazelwa ziimfazwee zasekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo 1800; malunga nexesha uShaka anyukela ebukhosini. Ngokohlukileyo ke kuhlanga lwaBasotho, bazakhela amakomkhulu ohlukileyo (nawaye ahamba aziwa njengee ntlanga kwiindawo eyaziwa nge Botswana namhlane), endaweni yokuba nekomkhulu elinye. Bazinza kwindawo esentshona eyomileyo yelizwe, nalapho bafika kukho aBathwa/San. Ezintlanga zee San zazisele zinobango ngeendawo zokuzingela iinyamakazi.

Izindlu ZabaTswana

Phakathi kweentlanga zokuqala ukuhlala kwiindawo zasentshona ezichumuleyo kwilizwe elibizwa nge Botswana namhlanje, yayisisizwe seKgalagadi. Ngethuba izinyanya zama Rolong kunye namaTlhaping ezinza kwiindawo ezisemantla womlambo iMolopo, baze baya befudukela emazantsi nasentshona baye badibana nama Kgalagadi kunye nama San akule ngingqi.
Abo babengafuni kudibaniselana nezintlanga banyanzelwa ukuba bafudukele enzulwini ye Ntlango ye Kalahari. Izizukulwana zabo zisafumaneka nangoku kule ndawo. Ingingqi emalunga nendawo eyaziwa nge Rustenburg namhlanje, iZeerust kunye ne Lichtenburg ekwiphondo loMnytla Ntshona welizwe loMzantsi Afrika, kwakuhlala khona amaHurutshe, amaKwena kunye namaKgatla. Izindlu zale ndawo nanamhlanje zisabonakalisa ifuthe elikhulu labaTswana. Base baninzi ke abantu bohlanga lwabaTswana kwiphondo lase Rhawutini, nangona kungenoku khawuleza kuqapheleke oku.
Ubungqina bubonakalisa ukuba ookhoko babanye abaTswana banamhlange babehlela kwiindawo zase Highveld ukusukela kwiminyaka ye sentyuri 17. Ukusukela ngelo xesha ukuya ekuqaleni kwe sentyuri 19, kwaye kukho umanyano lweze politiki kunye nolwamaqela alawulayo. Amalungu amancinci osapho lwasebukhosini lwaluvamise ukuqhezuka kunye nabalandeli bawo ukuze baye kuzakhela esabo isizwe. Inkoliso yezi zizwe zaziye zithiywe ngegama lenkokheli/inkosi yazo entsha.
Ukusukela malunga nomnyaka ka 1810, oku kwaye kwanqamlwa zizinto ezimbini: ingxwaba ngxwaba eyadalwa ngabantu abathethwa ulwimi lwesiNguni kunye nabanye abahlaseli ngethuba leemfazwe zika Shaka; kunye neenngozi zokohluthwa kwemihlaba ngethuba kufika abantu abamhlophe. Aba bantu bamhlophe baqala bangabantu abafuna umhlaba kunye neenkomo baze ekuhambeni kwexesha bakhangela abasebenzi bemayini zegolide kunye nedayimani. Zombini ezi zinto zabeka emngciphekweni ubukhosi, zaze zakholelela kumacebo amatsha okokha izindlu ezisondeleleneyo kwiindawo zokhuselo. Iyantlukwano yeze politiko yaya ibanobungozi kwaye ingakhuselekanga. Ubukhosi obabukhona ngelo xesha baya bukhula kwaye budityaniswa. Ikakhulu kwakudityaniswa ubukhosi ibeziindawo ezinkulu oku kweezindlu zasezilalini. Namhlanje obu bukhosi badityaniswayo bubizwa ngezizwe/iintlanga.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana