Ukwehlukana kwamaTswana

Umlandu wamaTswana

©Dr Peter Magubane
Awaziwa kancane ngemvelaphi yokuqala yaseShunu abantu abantu abase-Tswana manje abayingxenye yabo. Ngokwesiko somlomo, babephakathi kwezikhulumi zeBantu ezavela eduze kwe-East African Great Lakes (iVictoria neTanganyika), futhi zenza indlela yazo eningizimu ekufudukeni kwamakhulu eminyaka. Imikhuba nayo iwukuthi yayisisitokisini esivamile futhi kamuva yahlukana yaba amayunithi ahlukene.

NjengabaseBasotho, izindlela zabo zokuhlala kanye nezindawo zokuhlala zathinteka yizimpi zakuqala zakwa-1800 phakathi nesikhathi sokuphakama kukaShaka.

Ngokungafani nabaseBasotho, bakha izinkosi ezihlukene (kamuva ezaziwa ngokuthi izizwe ezikhulwini zaseKoloni namhlanje) kunokuba zize zodwa, futhi zitholakala enyakatho eyomile yezwe, lapho bathola ukuthi abantu baseSan bavele sebebalekela kumfundisi wezefundisi ukuxoshwa ezindaweni zabo zokuzingela.

Ukuhlaliswa kwamaTswana

Phakathi kokuqala ukuhlala empumalanga, izingxenye ezivundile zanamuhla iBotswana kwakuyi-Kgalagadi. Ngesikhathi okhokho baseRolong neTlhaping behlala emaphethelweni aphezulu eMfuleni iMlopo futhi kancane kancane bathuthela eningizimu nasentshonalanga, bafaka iKgalagadi neSan endaweni. Labo abaphikisana nokuhlanganiswa baphoqeleka ukuba bathuthele ngaphakathi emaphethelweni eNdlango yaseKalahari lapho inzalo yabo isengatholakala nanamuhla. Indawo eseduze nosuku lweRustenburg yanamuhla, uZeerust noLichtenburg esifundazweni saseNorth West-Ningizimu Afrika yaxazululwa nguHurutshe, Kwena noKgatla, okuhlala kuyo namuhla kubonisa ukuqina okukhulu kwe-Tswana. Lokhu kutholakala okunamandla okulinganayo, kodwa kuhlakazeka kakhulu futhi kubonakala ngokucacile, kuwo wonke amadolobha esifundazweni saseGauteng.

Ubufakazi bubonisa ukuthi okhokho bezinye zezinsuku ze-Tswana babehlala kwi-Highveld kusukela okungenani ngekhulu le-17. Isikhathi kusukela ngaleso sikhathi kuze kube sekuqaleni kwekhulu le-19 sabonakaliswa ngokuphindaphindiwe kwezombangazwe kanye ne-fission-group fission: Amalungu amancane omndeni ophethe isigungu sezivame ukuhlukana nabalandeli babo ukwakha iqembu elisha elaziwa ngokubizwa ngegama umholi omusha.

Nokho, kusukela ngo-1810, lesi simo sasivinjelwa yizici ezimbili: ingxabano eyakhiwe yiNguni kanye nabanye abahlaseli ngesikhathi sezimpi ze-Shakan; kanye nengozi yokulahlekelwa phansi komhlaba lapho abahlali abamhlophe befika endaweni, kuqala ukufuna umhlaba nezinkomo futhi kamuva befuna umsebenzi wezimayini ezintsha zamadayimani negolide. Zombili lezi zinto zatshengisa ubukhosi bendawo yamakhosi futhi zaholela esimweni esisha sokuhlala ezindaweni ezinamandla ezinkimbini zezombusazwe zokuzivikela kunasekuqaleni. Njengoba i-fission yezombangazwe ibe yinkimbinkimbi kakhulu futhi engaphephile, izikhulu zamanje zazikhulile futhi zahlanganiswa, ngokuvamile zizungeze izindawo ezinkulu ezihlala emzaneni, kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi izizwe namuhla.

Translated by Nsika Khoza