Kutsatsa Letinye Tindlela kwemaTswana

Imvelaphi Yekucala yemaTswana

©Dr Peter Magubane
Kuncane lokwatiwako ngekucala kwemvelaphi yebantfu bebeSothho le emaTswana nyalo akha incenye. Ngekusho kwesintfu lesibonwako, bebasemkhatsini walabakhuluma-iBantu labachamuka endzaweni yinye ye Afrika lese Mpumalanga eGreat Lakes (iVictoria ne Tanganyika), base batentela indlela yabo ngaseningizimu ngekuhamba iminyaka leminingi. Sintfu siphindze sibenekutsi bukhona intfo leyatiwako kwase kutsi muva kwaphuma kwaba tindzawo letiningi.

Kufana neBasotho,indlela yekuhlala kwabo kanye netindzawo tetindlu tangenelwa timphi tekucala ta 1800 ngesikhatsu sekuphakama kwemandla aShaka. Akufani neBasotho, bakheka babatigodzi letehlukene (lokwatiwa njengetive ngesikholoni lekuchubekako eBotswana namuhla) kunasinye, base batibeka endzaweni leyomile yelive, lapho batfolakhona bantfu bema San lesebebatsetse kubhacela bafundisi lebebangenela tindzawo tabo tekutingela.

Kuhlala kwemaTswana

Emkhatsini wekucala wekuhlala empumalanga, tindzawo letinentalo ngisho kutinsuku-talamuhla iBotswana beyiyi Kgalagadi. Ngesikhatsi emadloti ase Rolong nase Tlhaping ahlala ngasetindzaweni letifika eMfuleni iMolopo ase ayasuka aya eningizimu nase nshonalanga, batsatsa le Kgalagadi nema San kulendzawo. Labo bebaphila lebala kutsatsa baphocelelwa ngekutsi basuke baye phansi elusentseni lwe Kalahari Desert lapho khona labo babo labacoshwa bangahle babekhonakhona nanamuhla.

Indzawo lengase Rustenberg lesengiyo-nalamuhla, iZeerust ne Lichteburg lese Ningizimu Afrika esifundzeni sase North-West yayitsetfwe ngema Hurutshe, Kwena ne Kgatla, letindzawo tabo namula tikhomba bukhona bemaTswana lobucinile. Lobukhona bucine kakhulu, kepha incumbi yahlukana kepha lizibithi liphansi, kuwo onkhe emadolobha esifundza sase Goli.

Lokwatfolwa kukhomba kutsi lamadloti lamanye alamuhla emaTswana bekaphila Endzaweni Lephakeme kusuka ngemnyaka wandvulo welishumi nesikhombisa. Lesikhatsi kusuka lapho kuze kube sekucaleni kwemnyaka welishumi nemfica mandvulo samakwa ngekwembusave lokuvelako kudvwetjwa kanye nekungavani ngekuphatsa-kwelicembu: emalunga lamancane esigodzi lesiphetfwe sikhulu lesihola emindeni abevame kubhidlika nebalandzeli bawo ayokwakha licembu lelisha, lokwabese kwatiwa ngeligama lemholi lomusha.

Ngesikhatsi sa 1810, nomakunjalo, lesimo sancishiswa ngetindlela letimbili: lomsindvo lowakheka ngebantfu labakhuluma-siNguni kanye nalabanye bebangenelela ngesikhatsi setimphi ta Shaka; netingoti tekutsatselwa indzawo ngesikhatsi bantfu labamhlophe beta batohlala kulendzawo, kwekucala bebafuna indzawo netinkhomo kwatsi muva bafuna umsebentu wedayimane lensha kanye netindzawo temayini yegolide.

Totimbili letintfo taphatamisa tigodzi tetikhulu tendzawo kwachubela entfweni lensha yekuhlala etindzaweni letiphansi lapho kulwelwa tindzawo tembusave letinkhulu kunaphambilini. Ngekucabana ngetembusave lokuba matima kakhulu futsi lokungakaphephi, tigodzi tetikhulu letisaphila takhula tabatinkhulu futsi bancheshetelwa, kaningi ngase tigodzini letinkhulu-letitindzawo tekuhlalela, le namuhla kubitwa ngetive.

Translated by Phindile Malotana