Inkcazelo nge Mfene

©Nigel Dennis
Iimfene (Papio Ursunis) kunqabile ukuba zitshabalalise imfuyo, kodwa zisenokwenza umonakalo omkhulu kwintsimi yediliya kwe yemifuno neziqhamo. Iimfene zifumaneka kwimimandla eyahlukeneyo kulo lonke elo Mzantsi Afrika, ngaphandle kwase Namaqualand Sandveld kuba apho kungekho ndawo zingako zokusithela ebusuku.

Sele zikwazi ukuphila kakuhle ngoku nakwii ndawo ezihlala abantu. Isenzo sabantu sokuzipha ukutya, kwenze zicinge ngokutya xa zibona abantu. Kwaye ezingqondweni zeemfene oku kukwa thetha nokuba iimfene zikumgangatho ophezulu kunabantu,kuba iimfene ezilawulayo zithatha ukutya kwiimfene ezingalawuli kangako.

Iimfene zineempumlo ebukufana neyenja kwaye zinombala ongwevu umzimba wonke ukuya komnyama ngombala okanye ongwevu-ntsundu. Zinoboya obumnyama ezandleni nasezinyaweni. Iimfene zizilo ezikhulu. Ngokubhalwe kwi Predation Management Manual, iinkunzi zinobude obungama 120 cm ukuya kuma 160 cm, zize zibe nobunzima obungama 25 kg ukuya kuma 45 kg kwaye zinamazinyo abukhali, kunye noboya obumnyama entanyeni nase magxeni. Imisila yazo ingafikelela kuma 86 cm ubude. Iimazi zinobude obufikelela kwi 100 cm ukuya kwi 120 cm, zize zibenobunzima obuli 12 kg ukuya kuma 20 kg. Imisila yazo inobude obuphakathi kwama 50 cm ukuya kuma 60 cm.

Iimfene zikulungela ukukhwelana xa zineminyaka emihlanu ubudala, kwaye zikhwelana/zizale unyaka wonke. Zimitha isithuba seenyanga ezintandathu, kwaye amasana alunyulwa ebeleni emva kweenyanga ezintandathu. Amasana ayaqhubeka nokuxhomekeka koonina de abe neminyaka emibini. Ootata babagada ngeyona ndlela abantwana babo, kwaye maxa wambi bayahlala nabo, logama oonina bayokukhangela ukutya.

Iinkunzi esele zikhulile zivamise ukushiya iqela leemfene ebezizalelwe kuzo zize zizame ukungena kwamanye amaqela xa zineminyaka emalunga nesixhenxe ubudala. Oku kunceda ekunciphiseni amathuba okuzalisana kweemfene eziphuma esibelekweni esinye. Iinkunzi zisemngciphekweni kwaye zivamise ukubonwa njengeziqala inkathazo ngethuba zisakhangela amaqela amatsha. Xa inkokheli-ebizwa nge nkunzi eyi alpha-isusiwe esihlalweni, inkokheli entsha isenokubulala yonke inzala yenkokheli edlulileyo. Xa kungekho masana okuncancisa iimazi zisenokukhawuleza zikulungele ukuphinda zizale kwakhona. Iimfene zingakhule zide zifikele kwiminyaka engama 40 ubudala.

Indlela Yokubulala neYokutya

©Roger de la Harpe
Imikhosi isenokuba neemfene ezisixhenxe ubuncinane ukuya kwikhulu nangaphezulu. Imida ehlala kuyo ingaba phakwathi kwe 1,5 km² ukuya kuma 40 km², ngokubhalwe yi The Endangered Wildlife Trust. Imikhosi emikhulu ivamise kuba nemida emikhulu yeendawo ezihlala kuyo, kwiindawo ezingaxinenanga kakhulu, logama imikhosi efikelela ekutyeni okusemgangathweni ivamise ukuhlala kwimida emincinane kwiindawo ezishinyeneyo.

Iimfene zisebenza kakhulu emini zize ziye kuhlala emithini okanye emaweni ngaphambi kokutshona kwelanga.

Nangona iimfene zisitya izityalo kunye nenyama, eyona nto ziyitya kakhulu zizityalo. Ukuzingela ngumsebenzi weenkunzi kuphela, ngokubhalwe kwi
Predation Management Manual. Akukho ndlela ithile ezibulala ngayo, kodwa ixhoba lazo livamise ukubulawa ngamanxeba amaninzi emzimbeni. Iigusha ezinkulu ziye ziwiswe zize zilunywe esifubeni, logama amatakane egusha wona esenokuqhaqhwa phakathi.

Indlela ezitya ngayo iba bubusaza. Izilwanyana ezingamaxhoba zihlutywa ifele liyokuma ngasentanyeni. Zivamise ukuqala ngokutya iziphakathi, ziyawakhupha amathumbu nesisu sikrazulwe ukuze zikwazi ukufikelela kwizihluni. Zitya iimbambo, izintso, amaphaphu,isibindi kunye nentliziyo.

Ulawulo

©Peter Delaney
Iimfene zizilwanyana ezihlakaniphe kakhulu, yiyo lonto zikhawuleza zikwazi ukuphepha izithinteli. Amacingo ombane, ingxolo, ukufakwa kwemfuyo ebuhlanti, ukusetyenziswa kwabelusi kunye nezilwanyana ezigada imfuyo zinganceda ekuthinteleni ilahleko, ingakumbi xa isetyenziswe kwiindawo ezisedolophini nalapho iimfene sele zikuqhelile ukukhanya okubonakala efestileni.

Kufanele kuqhakamshelwane nabasemagunyeni ukuze kufunyanwe iimpepha mvume zokuthiyela okanye ukudubula iimfene. Zizilwanyana ezikhuselweyo eNtshona Koloni, ngoko ke amafama kweli phondo angadubula iimfene ezimbini kuphela ngosuku, nakhona kufuneka kube kanti zisemhlabeni wazo. Amafama asenokuba nawo amaphepha mvume okudubula iimfene ezingaphezulu kwesibini.

Ukudutyulwa kweemfene kungadala enye ingxaki. Iziphumo zoku ingaba ziimfene ezincinci ezimosha mpela ziphathe. Ngoku bhalwe kwi Baboon Matters, ukubulawa kwe nkunzi elawulayo eyi alpha, kudala ingxwaba ngxwaba emkhosini wemfene kwaye oku kungakhokelela kumaqela amancinci angalawulekiyo. La maqela angathi saa ayokumosha emizini, okanye kwiifama zabantu.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana