Amasiko eNkcubeko yakwa Xhosa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Nangona indlela yenkcubeka yase Ntshona ikhula, uninzi lwama Xhosa lwaluqhubeka ukwenza amasiko, imisebenzi yesintu nenkcubeko. Ama Xhosa ekuqaleni ayengabelusi beenkomo abasebenza nzima ngokwemveli yabo kwaye sisizwe esomeleleyo. Uninzi lweentsapho zinemizi emikhulu (ekhaya khulu) kwindawo ezifana nase Eastern Cape eMzantsi Afrika, kodwa basebenza kakhulu kwidolophu nezixeko ezinkulu ezifana nase Kapa, nase Rhawutini.

Amaxhosa anoluhlu lwama siko esintu abaphila ngawo; eminye imisebenzi yesintu iquka ulwaluko lwamadoda xa befikelele kwelonqanaba, oku kuquka okokuba baye kwisikolo solwaluko (‘entabeni’), apho bafumana iimfundiso ezikhethekileyo kwabadala nabafana. Esinye isithethe yilobola, imali okanye iinkomo ezikhutshwa yindoda enenjongo yokutshata nomntu othile obhinqileyo. Kufuneka ayinike utata walontombi nosapho njengexabiso lenkomo okanye ezinye izinto endaweni yesandla sakhe ngeqhina lomtshato.

Nomtshato ke uquka imisebenzi yesintu samaxhosa amaninzi asayenza. Ukufa nemingcwabo zenziwa ngendlela yesintu. Amaxhosa asezidolophini awasayi bambanga kakhulu imithetho yesintu ethile, nangona abantu abadala behlala bezimisele ukugcina imithetho namasiko esintu eqhubeka phakathi kosapho.

Imizi

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngokwe mbali, (Imizi) yama Xhosa yayiqelelene kumhlaba okwilali kwaye iphezulu kwamatye neenduli ukuze ingadami amanzi nokuseka umkhosi wokhuselo. Izindlu zazenziwe zasisangqa ngeepali nemithi, ezazigotywa zibekwe okwefusi leenyosi zifakwe ingca ukususela phezulu ukuya ezantsi ngengca.

Ukuqinisekisa umoya uyangena, umphakathi wawutyatyekwa ngodaka nobulongwe ukususela ezantsi ukonyuka nje kancinci ukuma emagxeni. Phantsi kwakusindwa ngobulongwe kurhidwe nangodaka. Kwakubakho ipali esizikithini ixhasa indlu. Oluhlobo lwendlu (ungquphantsi) lwalune cango elisezantsi kwaye kwakufuneka ubani agobe xa engenayo. Ngexesha leminyaka yama 1820 oluhlobo lwendlu lwathi lwatshintshiswa ngolunye uhlobo olomeleleyo, ixande elakhiwe ngepali nengca (besakha ngendlela onomishini abafana no Dc J. Tvan de Kemp), exhasa iphahla elinengca etsolo.

Izindlu eziyimizi zaziqokelelwa kwisangqana esijonge indawo enkulu ejikelezileyo, isibaya seenkomo ke ukutsho, esiphinda sibene zinye izibaya esinye okanye ezimbini ezincinci ezibekwe emacaleni, izezokugcina iibhokhwe. Imingxuma eyenzelwe ukugcina umbona yayingaphantsi kwesibaya senkomo. Lemigxuma yombona yayi sanyentiwe yavalwa ngamatye amakhulu, ukuze amanzi angavuzi nokuba umbona ungamoshakali ngokubola okanye ungunde. Kumaxesha amaninzi, umbona owawugcinwe kule mingxuma wawune vumba elimuncu kunye nencasa emuncu, kodwa wawunyamezelwa kwaye usonwatyelwa, ingakumbi ngamaxesha onyaka apho umbona unqabileyo.

Kwakhona ngaphandle, ngemva okanye malunga nezindlu, yayizindawo ezikhuselekileyo zokuphekela, indawo yokupheka isonka sombona (isonka sombona) nesinye esenziwe ngengca- ingobozi yokugcina umbona nezikhwebu. Indawo eyayitshayelwa isuka emnyangweni wendlu enkulu namaxhanti obuhlanti beenkomo yayisaziwa ngokuba yi (nkundla). Kulapho amatyala ayexoxelwa khona kwindawo enkulu yenkosi okanye yenkosi ephakamileyo/ephezulu.

Imizi yayikwazi ukuziphilisa, yayifuye imfuyo inayo nemihlaba yokulima nendawo zokuzingela. Umzi wawunezindlu ezininzi apho indoda, noonyana bayo abatshatileyo, amakhosikazi wabo nabantwana babehlala khona. Indoda enobutyebi okanye inkosi enomhlambi wenkomo ezininzi wayebanabathengi namasapho abo abahlala kumzi wakhe. Aba bantu babenikeza inkosi ngoncedo (ukubusa) inkosi okanye intloko yomzi wayo, boluse imfuyo endaweni yokonwabela ubisi nokuzenzela imfuyo yabo.

Imithetho ye Lifa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Imithetho yelifa yayiba phakathi kosapho kuphela; unyana wokuqala womfazi omkhulu wayefumana ilifa lemfuyo kayise. Kwimizi yesi Thembu, bonke oonyana bokuqala bamakhosikazi alondoda babefumana isabelo semfuyo, bazokhele eyabo imihlambi. Ngokwembali umhlaba wawunikezwa ngaba semagunyeni bezo politiko- umzekelo inkosi -yenkundla- hayi ngokweqela. Nakwimeko zentsebenziswano phakathi kwamakhaya, umzekelo umsebenzi wamaqela ovelayo encedisa ukutyala, ukususa ukhula kunye nokuvuna, imvelaphi ayibalulekanga kunendawo yokuhlala.

Iqela elingazalaniyo ngegazi likatata, ibayingqokelela yentloko zezindlu ezizalanayo nezizukulwana ezihlala kwindawo ethile. Kuba lamadoda azizi zukulwana zika khokho omnye, bayalazi iqela abaphantsi kwalo. Lamaqela angohlulwa kubini okanye buthathu abantu abangama 20 ndlunganye. Umhlaba nemfuyo ayizizo ezamalungu onke eqela, kodwa zezemizi ezimeleyo kodwa phakathi kweqela. Lamaqela anemisebenzi emibini ebalulekileyo, kodwa eyohlukileyo: okokuqala, ukusombulula iingxabano phakathi kwama lungu eqela, okwesibini, ukuseka nolawulo lwebandla elikholelwa kwizinyanya.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie