Milawu ya Ndzhavuko wa xi Xhosa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ehandle ka nhlohletelo lowukulaka wa ndzhavuko wa xilungu, vanhu votala va ma Xhosa va ha yisa emahlweni ndzhavuko wa vona na maendlelo hinkwawo ya ndzhavuko. Ma Xhosa avari varisi vatihomu hintumbuluko lava kuya hi ndzhavuko vatirhaka hi matimba vatlhela vakondzelela swinene. Mindyangu yotala yina makaya na tiyindlu tava kokwa wa vona eka tindzhawu tale xifundzeni xa Eastern Cape xa Afrika Dzonga eka swidorobani leswinga hluvuka na madoroba yofana na Cape Town na Johannesburg.

Vanhu va ma Xhosa vana maendlelo yotala ya ndzhavuko leyi vayi landzelelaka; swin’wana swa ndzhavuko swikatsa madlala wa majaha loko varinganerile, leswikatsaka leswaku vaya entshaveni, laha vakumaka dyondzo kusuka eka lavakulu kutani vavuya vari vavanuna. Maendlelo yan’wana i lobola, leswi kunga ntsengo lowu hakeriwaka hi wanuna loyi a lavaka ku teka nsati. U fanele ku hakela tata wa wansati loyi na ndyangu hi xivumbeko xa tihomu kumbe swin’wana leswaku ata lulamela kun’witeka.

Vukati hibyoxe byi katsa mintirho yin’wani na mintirho leyi vanhu va ma Xhosa vaha yi landzelelaka. Rifu na Nkosi swi endliwa hi ndlela ya ndzhavuko. Ma Xhosa lavanga hluvuka vatala kuva vanga landzelerisi ngopfu maendlelo yin’wana ya ndzhavuko, loko lavakulu vaha tiyisisa ku hlayisa ndzhavuko na maendlelo ya ndzhavuko kuva swiya emahlweni e ndzangwini.

Tiyindlu

©Dr Peter Magubane
Kuya hi matimu, miti (imizi) ya ma Xhosa hintolovelo yi hangalakile swinene emakaya naswona titshame laha kunga voyama leswaku mati yanga ngheni naleswaku vakota ku tisirhelela loko kutshuka kuri na nyimpi. Tiyindlu leti ta xirhendzevutani ati yimisiwile hitipala, leti ati goviwa titeka xivumbeko xa baku ra tinyoxi, kutani ti fuleriwa hi byasi kusuka ehansi kuya fika ehenhla. Kutiyisisa leswaku kunga ngheni mati, endzeni ka tona aku phamiwa hi misava na vulongo bya tihomu kuya fika laha makatleni.

Hambi kuri laha hansi aku sindziwa hi misava na vulongo. Exikarhi ka yindlu aku siyiwa xirhendzevutani. Muxaka lowu wa yindlu (ungquphantsi) awuri na nyangwa wuntsongo lowu awufanele kuva u khinsama loko u nghena kumbe ku huma. Himinkarhi yava 1820s xivumbeko lexotani xivuye xisiviwa hi xin’wana lexi kunga vuya xitirhisiwa nkarhi woleha laha aku hlanganisiwa khumbi naku fuleriwa hi lwangu leringana timbalele, laha yi seketeriwaka hi lwangu leri fuleriweke hi byasi.

Tiyindlu leti ta muti ati tala kuva eka ntlawa wa xirhendzevutani laha ativa tilangutane na xivala xa tihomu, laha kungavaka na swivala swintsongo leswi ku pfaleriwaka timbuti. Eswivaleni akuri na laha aku ceriwa magoji ya xivumbeko xa mabodlela laha aku hlayisiwa kona mavele. Magoji lawa aya phamiwile laha ndzeni kutani ya pfariwa hi maribye lawa yakulu swinene, lawa aya sivela leswaku kunga ngheni mati lawa yangata borisa swakudya leswi hlayisiweke. Hi minkarhi yakahle, mavele lawa ya hlayisiweke eka magoji lawa ayatala kuva yari na nuhelo wokarhi xikan’we na natswo wo dzungela, kambe awu kondzeleriwa, hambi kutsakeriwa, ngopfu ngopfu hi nguva leyi mavele aya kala swinene.

Xin’wani xa leswi aswi tshame ekusuhi kumbe e tlhelo ka tiyindlu leti akuri tindzhawu to swekela eka tona, laha akuri na ko bakela kona xinkwa (isonka) xikan’we na laha aku vekiwa kona kumbe ku hlayisa mavele e dulwini. Ndzhawu leyi kukuriwaka exikarhi ka minyangwa na laha xikarhi ka tiyindlu kuya ekusuhi na xivala kutiveka tani hile ndyangu (inkunda). Laha hi laha milandzu ayi tengiwa kona emutini wa hosi kumbe hosinkulu.

Mimiti akuri swilo leswikotaka ku avela vanhu lavatshamaka eka yona, laha akuri na swivala swa swifuwo na ndzhawu yo tima xikanwe nay o hlotela eka yona. Muti awuri na nhlayo yokarhi ya tiyindlu laha wanuna, vana va majaha lavanga teka, na vavasati va vona xikan’we na vana vavona ava tshama kona. Wanuna wa xigwili kumbe hosi lavangani ntlhambi lowukulu wa tihomu vangava na vanhu kumbe maxaka lava vatshamaka navona endyangwini wun’we. Van’wana vangava vatisa vukorhokeri byokarhi (ukubusa) eka hosi kumbe nhloko yo muti, kurisa swifuwo laha va hakeriwaka, ekuheteleleni vavaka na mintlhambi yavona.

Milawu ya Ndzhaka

©Dr Peter Magubane
Milawu ya ndzhaka ayi tirha eka swirho swa ndyangu swalekusuhi: nwana wa jaha wosungula wan sati lonkulu ata kuma tihomu ta tata wayena. Laha kunga tekiwa tshengwe, vana vamajaha hinkwavo vosungula kusuka eka vavasati lava ava kuma tihomu, laha vangata sungula kuva na mintlhambi yavona. Kuya hi matimu misava ayi averiwa hi valawuri va tipolotiki — i.e. hosi eka huvo — naswona kungari kuya hi mintlawa ya rixaka. Hambi kuri eka swiyimo swa ntirhisano lowu anameke exikarhi ka mindyangu, xikombiso i tsima leri rhambiwaka kuta tirha ntirho wokarhi lowu lulamisiwaka kufana naku ya byala, ku hlakula kumbe ku tshovela, rixaka rina nkoka kutlula vaakelani.

Vuxa lebyi taka hile tlhelo ra vaxinuna byi katsa nhlangano wa tinhloko ta miti xikan’we na vana vavona lava hanyaka eka ndzhawu yokarhi. Tani hileswi hinkwavo kavona vahlanganaka kusuka eka vakokwa wa kokwa wa vona wa xinuna, vana vurhonwani swinene loko swita eka ntlawa lowu vawelaka eka wona. Ntlawa lowu wunga hambana kusuka eka 2 kumbe 3 kuya kwalomu ka 20 wa tinhloko ta miti. Misava na swifuwo ahiswa swirho swa ntlawa swihlanganile, kambe i swa nhloko yin’wana na yin’wana exikarhi ka ntlawa. Mintlawa leyi yina mintirho yimbirhi ya nkoka kambe aswiheleli kwalano: wosungula, ku ololoxa swiphiqo exikarhi ka swirho swa ntlawa, naswona, xavumbirhi, kuva xiphemu xantlawa wa rixaka.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni