Amasiko AmaXhosa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Naphezu kwethonya elikhulayo lemasiko aseNtshonalanga, abantu abaningi baseXhosa baqhuba amasiko abo namasiko abo. AmaXhosa ayengabelusi bezilwane abesiko abasebenzela kanzima futhi abanamandla. Imindeni eminingi inezindlu zokhokho emikhakha efana ne-Eastern Cape yaseNingizimu Afrika, kodwa isebenza emadolobheni amakhulu namadolobha afana neKapa naseGoli.

Abantu baseXhosa banamasiko amaningi amasiko abo abahambisana nawo; eminye imikhuba yendabuko ihlanganisa ukuqaliswa kwamadoda lapho bebaneminyaka yobudala, okubandakanya ukuba baqale esikoleni ('intaba'), bethola izimfundiso ezingcwele ezivela kubadala babo futhi bevela njengamadoda. Omunye umkhuba yi-lobola, okuyikhokhelo olwenziwe yindoda efuna ukushada nowesifazane. Kumelwe anikele ngenkokhelo kababa nomndeni wakhe wesifazane ngendlela yemfuyo noma ezinye izinto ezandleni zakhe emshadweni.

Umshado uqobo uhlanganisa nemikhuba nemikhosi abantu abaningi baseXhosa abambelela kuyo. Ukufa nokuqhutshwa komngcwabo nakho kwenziwa ngendlela yendabuko. Abantu abaningi base-Xhosa baseThansen bavame ukungabi nakancane emathethweni athile, kuyilapho abadala bevame ukuphoqelela ukugcina amasiko namasiko aqhubekayo emndenini.

Amakhaya

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngokomlando, izindlu (izindlu) ze-Xhosa zazivame ukuhlakazeka ezindaweni zasemaphandleni futhi zazikhona emagqumeni ukuze kutholakale amanzi nokuvikela amasosha. Izindawo zokuhlala zazihlanganisa uhlaka oluyindilinga lwamapulangwe nezintambo, ezaziboshwe futhi ziboshwe ngesimo sezinyosi futhi ziboshwe kusukela phezulu kuya phansi ngotshani. Ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthungwa okwanele, ngaphakathi kwe-intshi kwakhiwe ngendwangu yodaka kanye nomswakama kusuka emhlabathini kuze kufike ekuphakameni kwamahlombe.

Iphansi lendawo yokuhlala laphinde lafakwa ngendwangu yodaka nesikhumba. Ukucindezeleka okuphansi, okusiketshezi, okuyiyindilinga phakathi nendawo phansi kwaba yindawo yokuhlala. Lolu hlobo lokuhlala (ungquphansi) lwalukhona umnyango ophansi futhi umuntu kwakudingeka angene ukuze angene kuwo. Ngasekuqaleni kwawo-1820, lesi sakhiwo sasiqhutshwa isitayela esiphezulu nesigxilile, esakhiwa ngodonga oluyindilinga kanye nodonga lwama-daub (kubandakanya izindlela zokwakha ezazisungulwa izithunywa zevangeli ezifana noDr J.T. van der Kemp), zisekela uphahla oluhlangene.

Izindawo zokuhlala ezihlala endlini zazivame ukuhlanganiswa emgqeni wesiyingi ezibhekene nezinkomo ezinkulu eziyindilinga ezinama-brushwood, okungaba nezinhlangothi ezincane noma ezincane ezisezinhlangothini zalo zokugcina izimbuzi. Imikhosi enamabhodlela owodwa noma ngaphezulu yokugcina ummbila ayevame ukuhlala phansi phansi kwezinkomo. Lezi zimbiza zokusanhlamvu zazihlelwe kahle futhi zivalwe ngamatshe amakhulu, ukuze kuvinjelwe amanzi e-seepage kanye ne-spoilage emayelana nommbila ngokusebenzisa ukuvutshelwa nokubola. Ngesikhathi esifanele kakhulu, ummbila owagcinwa kulezi zinkuni wawunephunga elimnandi nelinambitheka elimuncu, kodwa labekezelela, futhi libuye lijabule, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sezinkathi lapho ummbila wawungekho.

Okunye okukhona ngaphandle, ngemuva noma eduze kwezindlu, kwakuyizindawo zokupheka eziphekisiwe, ihhavini lobumba lokudla ubhontshisi (isonka) kanye nesikhumba esisodwa noma ngaphezulu se-wickerwork esenziwe ngemifino yokugcina ummbila emgqonyeni. Indawo evulekile phakathi komnyango wendlu enkulu kanye nesango lezinkomo ezifuywayo yayibizwa ngokuthi igceke (inkunda). Lokhu kwakukhona lapho amacala enkantolo ezwakala khona eNdawo eNkulu yezinduna ezinkulu noma eziyinhloko.

Izindlu zasekhaya zazizimele ngokwezomnotho, ngokubanjwa kwemfuyo namazwe okulima nokuzingela. Indlu yendlu yayinezindlu eziningana lapho indoda, amadodana akhe ashadile, omkabo nezingane zabo behlala khona. Indoda ecebile noma induna enezinkomo ezinkulu kungenzeka ibe namakhasimende angahlangene nemindeni yabo ehlala ekhaya. Amaklayenti anjalo ahlinzeka ngemisebenzi yomuntu siqu (ukubusa) enhloko noma enhloko yekhaya, ephethe imfuyo yakhe ngokubuyisela ubisi nezinzalo, okwakhiwa isisekelo sezinkomo zabo.

Imithetho Yefa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Imithetho yefa iqhutshwa kuphela emndenini oseduze: indodana yokuqala yowesifazane omkhulu yazuza ifa lemfuyo kayise. Lapho kwakukhona khona i-polygyny, wonke amadodana okuzalwa omkawo womuntu ayemelela ukuba azuze isabelo semfuyo yakhe, lapho ayezokwakha khona izinkomo zawo. Ngokwemlando umhlaba wawunikezwa yiziphathimandla zezombangazwe - okungukuthi oyinhloko-emkhandlwini - hhayi ngesisekelo samacembu okuzalwa. Ngisho nasezindabeni zokubambisana phakathi kwemikhaya, isibonelo amaqembu asebenza ngokukhangisa ahlelwe ukusiza ekutshaleni, ukukhula nokuvunwa, ukwehla akubaluleki kangako kunokwakheka kwezwe.

Iqembu le-agnatic (i-i.e. elihlobene nomugqa wesilisa) liqukethe iqoqo lamakhanda omkhaya ahlobene nendawo kanye nezingane zabo ezihlala endaweni ethile. Njengoba laba bantu beyinzala yomkhulu ojwayelekile, bayazi kahle ukuthi bangabani. Lesi sigaba singahluka kusuka ku-2 noma ku-3 kuya ku-20 amakhanda omkhaya. Izwe kanye nesitokisi akulona okwakhiwa ngamalungu eqoqo, kepha kunalokho kubanjwe izindlu zomuntu ngaphakathi kweqoqo. La maqembu anemisebenzi emibili ebalulekile, kodwa elinganiselwe: okokuqala, ukuxazulana izingxabano phakathi kwamalungu eqembu, futhi okwesibili, ukwakha ibandla lehlelo lobukhokho.

Translated by Nsika Khoza