Emasiko neMihambo yemaXhosa

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngekunganaki kukhula kwemasiko Angaphandle, bantfu labaningi bemaXhosa basawenta emasiko abo kanye nemihambo yemasiko abo. Ema Xhosa bekubelusi betinkhomo le ngekwesintfu basenta-ngekutimisela futsi bantfu labanemandla. Imindeni leminingi inemakhaya lanebudloti etindzaweni letifana ne Eastern Cape yase Ningizimu Afrika, kepha basebenta emadolobheni latfutfukile kakhulu nasemadolobheni lamakhulu lafana ne Lidolobha lase Kapa nase Goli.

Labantfu bema Xhosa banencumbi yemihambo yemasiko labahamba ngayo; letinye tesintfu letilungiselelwako tifaka kusoka kwebesilisa labasemnyakeni, lokubafaka esigabeni sekutsi bahambe baye esikolweni sekusoka ('entsabeni'), lalabakutfolako lokusifundvo lokuchamuka kulabadzala babo nekuvela ngekuba ngemadvodza. Lamanye emalungiselelo kuba ngemalobolo, lekuyintfo yekukhokhela leyentiwa yindvodza lofuna kushada wesifazane. Kufuna anike babe walowesifazane kanye nemndeni imbadalo ngendlela yemfuyo noma letinye tintfo njengendlela yekucela sandla sendvodzana yakhe kutsi imushade.

Lomshado nawo ufaka imisebenti kanye nemicimbi lehanjwa bantfu bemaXhosa lesolo babambelele kiko. Kufa kanye nemalungiselelo kusachutjwa ngendlela yesintfu. Bantfu bemaXhosa labanganendzaba abakunaki kakhulu tintfo temasiko, babe lalabadzala basolo batimisele ngekugcina sintfu nemasiko kumindeni yabo.

Emakhaya

©Dr Peter Magubane
Ngekwemlandvo, emakhaya (imiti) yema Xhosa ivama kusakaaka etindzaweni tasemakhayeni futsi ibekeke etindzaweni letiphakeme nganhlanye kwentela kusebenta ngekudvonsa kanye nekuvikela kwemasotja. Tindlu tifaka emapholi layindingilizi kanye nasetihlahleni, lebetigotjwa tentiwe ngendlela letsite yendluyetinyosi lefakwe tjani kusuka ngetullu kuya phansi. Kuciniseka ngekufakela, lingekhatsi lalotjani lalifakwe ludzaka loluhlanganisiwe nebulongo lobusuka emhlabatsini kuya emahlombe laphakeme.

Siyilo salendlu sasiyilwe ngeludzaka loluhlanganiswe nebulongo. Lokuphansi, lokusekugcineni, lokuyindingilizi enkhabeni yesiyilo lokubekwe njengenkholelo. Lenanhlobo yendlu (ngugucaphansi – ungquphantsi) abenesivalo lesiphansi futsi umuntfu bekudzinga kutsi aguce kwentela kungena kuye. Ngesikhatsi sekucala semnyaka wa 1820 lenandlela yekuma yaphakanyiswa sitayela sengunaphakade, lokwakufaka sihlahla lesincane setimbali letisamhloshana nalokumtfubi nelidvonga lelidaub - kufaka tindlela tekwakha letatfulwa ngemamishini lafana na Dr J.T. van der Kemp, losekela sefulelo setjani.

Letindlu letivumelana nalamakhaya betivama kubekwa ngendlela yendingilizi lebuke ngasesibayeni lesikhulu setigodvo, lesingaba nasinye noma letiningi letincane letibekeke ngasehlangotsini lesigcina timbuti. Umgodzi munye noma leminingi lemise-kwemibhodlela yekufaka ummbila beyivame kubekeka ngaphansi kwesiyilo sesibaya setinkhomo. Lomgodzi wemabele bowuplasitelwe kahle futsi uvalwe ngematje lamakhulu, kwentela kuvikela kungena kwemanti nekutsi konakale lommbila ngekutsi ubole noma ushintje. Ngetikhatsi letinhle, lommbila lobowugcinwa kulomgodzi bowuba nekukhuntsa kanye nekuvela lokumunyu, kepha wawunakwa, futsi wawutsandvwa, ngemuva noma eceleni kwetindlu, kwakutindzawo-tekuphekela, indzawo yekubhakela sinkhwa semmbila yemhlaba (isonka) kanjalo yinye noma maningi imigcoma leyakhiwe ngetihlahla kwentela kufaka ummbila lonesinyani.

Lendzawo letsanyelekile emkhatsini wendlela yasemnyango wendlu lenkhulu kanye nasendleleni yeligede lesibaya setinkhomo yayatiwa njengelibala (inkunda). Ngulapho inkantolo yemacala yayenteka khona Endzaweni Lenkhulu yesikhulu noma sikhulu lesiphakeme.

Emakhaya bekakadze atimele ngetemnotfo, nekuba nemfuyo kanye nendzawo yekulima kanye nekutingela. Likhaya beliba netindlu letiningi lapho khona indvodza, nemadvodzana ayo lashadile, nebafati babo kanye nebantfwana babo bebahlala khona. Indvodza lenotsile noma sikhulu lesinetinkhomo letinkhulu singaba nebantfu lesingakahlobani nabo kanye nemindeni lefika lekhaya laso. Bantfu labafana nalaba banganiketa lusito (ukubusa) kulesikhulu noma inhlokoyelikhaya, kulusa tinkhomo taso kwentela kutfola lubisi njengendlela yekubhadalwa, intfo yesibili yendlela yekulusa kwabo.

Imiyalo Yekutfola

©Dr Peter Magubane
Imiyalo yekutfola leyentiwa kuphela emkhatsini wemndeni: indvodzana-yekucala yeMfati Lomkhulu utfola imfuyo yababe wakhe. Lapho bekwentiwa sitsembu khona, bonkhe bantfwana-bekucala labamadvodzana ebafati bendvodza bebatfola litfuba lekutfola imfuyo yababe wakhe, lekusuka lapho bakha tinhloko tabo. Ngekwemlandvo indzawo yayiniketwa ngendlela yemandla etembusane — njenge sikhulu-lesi-kukhansela — hhayi ngendlela yelicembu lelehlako. Ngisho nangetindlela letibanti letihlanganako emkhatsini wemakhaya, kufana nemsebenti wmaphathi we ad hoc lalungiselelwako kutsi asite ngekuhlanyela, kuhlakula kanye nekuvuna, kwehla kubalulekile kunalokomelele.

Lamacembu lahlobene (njengekutsi bahlobane ngelilayini lesilisa) afaka tindlu letihlangene tetinhloko kanye nebantfwababo labahlala endzaweni letsite. Kusukela lawamadvodza ayintalelwano yabokhokho-mkhulu lababantfu nje, bayalinaka licembu labakilo. Letitindlu letihlangene tingahambela kusuka kutimbili noma tintsatfu kuya kumashumi lamabili etindlu letinetinhloko. Indzawo kanye netinkhomo akusiko kwemalunga etindlu letihlangene, kepha kubanjwe ngemakhaya lahleti ngalinyye kulendzawo lehlangene. Lawa macembu anetintfo letimbili letibalulekile, kepha kukalekile, imicimbi: kwekucala, kusungula kucabana emkhatsini wemalunga elicembu, ne, kwesibili, Kubeka libandla lenkholelo yemadloti.

Translated by Phindile Malotana