Ngoma ya xi Venda

Ku Kula ka Munhu

©Dr Peter Magubane
Kukula ka munhu a swivoniwa swiri minongonoko yotala, kusukela laha a milaka misisi eka swirho swale xihundleni naswona vukati kuri xiteji xankoka swinene. Ku hundza kuya eka xiteji xin’wana aswi endliwa hi swilo swale handle (valehansi, mimoya leyinene na leyo biha, valoyi va rimbewu hinkwaro), leswinga vaka na nhlohletelo wakahle na wobiha eka vanhu. Vungoma a byi dondzisa vanhu leswi vangata hlangana naswona loko varikarhi vakula xikan’we na ndlela leyi vafaneleke ku tikhomisa xiswona eka xiteji lexi landzelaka xa vutomi bya vona. Hiku endliwa ka mintirho na ncino, avata kota ku hambana na swihoxo leswi hundzeke kutani valangutela vumundzuku. Mintirho leyi nayona ayi lava nseketelo kusuka eka vale hansi kutani wutiyisa lava yimbisiwaka hi masingita. Ayi khomeriwa e migangeni yale kusuhi kumbe e mitini ya tihosi na magota loko kuri na vanhu voringanela kunghenelela madlala/ vukhomba naswona aswinga vuli leswaku vafanele kuva vaswi endla lembe rin’wana na rin’wana.

Nhwenyani wa mu Venda u khombisiwa kanharhu: vhusha lok a sungula ku mila misisi e xihundleni; tshikanda, ku tiyisisa vhusha; kutani dombani, lexi kunga xikolo lexi ayaka angase tekiwa. Khlae, vafana lavanga hundza eka thondo ava ya eka swiphemu swin’wana swa dombani, kambe namuntlha votala ava ha endli leswi, naswona swikolo swa majaha, vhutuka na thondo, a swaha endliwi. Votala vaya eka murundu, leswi tisiwaka eka xiteji xale ndzhaku swinene. Swihumelela ehandle ka muganga, hixitalo exintshabyanini kumbe ntshava, hi minkarhi ya xixika, leswaku swita pfuneta kuva va hatlisa ku hola loko va heta kuyimbisiwa. Masiku lawa, nhlayo leyi tlakukaka, ngopfu ngopfu e madorobeni, va yimbisiwa hi madokodela ya xilungu, kungari hi tin’anga ta xintima. Van’wani madokodela lawa vasungule migingiriko ya vona yo yimbisa kutani va dlaya homu endzhaku kaloko nhlayo yo karhi ya vanhu yitava yiyimbisiwile, leswaku ntirho lowu wutava na ndzhuti wa ndzhavuko.

Switeji swa Ngoma

©Dr Peter Magubane
Vhusha (ngoma loko munhu a sungula ku huma misisi exihundleni) ayitala ku teka tinhweti totala nyana, kambe masiku lawa yi endliwa kuringana nhungu wa masiku. Vanhwenyani va dyondzisiwa leswaku ku hanya na vanhu hi wona nkoka wa vusati bya va Venda. Loko vaha vekiwe varivoxe e nhoveni, vas ungula ku endla swobiha vayingisela vanga vutisi swivutiso, vakorhamisa tinhloko, vakhomana makatla naswona mavoko ya vona ya petseka, kumbe mavoko yavona ya vekiwe ehansi ka swilebvu. Va endla mintirho leyinga laveki vuswikoti, varhwala swotika hi minhlana kumbe nhloko, varikarhi va cinisa makhwiri, kumbe vakhome xisana hi mavoko. Vadyondzisiwa hi vuenti hi swamasangu, matikhomelo eka swamasangu, kululamisela ku tekiwa na vukati, ku papalata ku biha emirini loko vanga se tekiwa.

Ku hambanyisiwa a swi endliwa hi ndzhavuko ehansi ka vhusha va xiyimo (vhusha ha vhakololo) na lava vava mbuyangwani (vhusha ha vhasiwana). Vayimbelela, vacina naku dyondza milawu (milayo) leswi aswiri swankoka swinene eka vukhomba bya mani na mani. Vukhomba bya lava xiyimo abyiri na xihundla swinene, naswona aku tiviwi swotala hi byona. Hinkwayo migingiriko ya yona ayi humelela exihundleni emutini wa hosi, naswona akungari na vunanga kutivisa vanhu leswaku vukhomba se byi sungurile. Akunga yi mani na mani ek avukhomba lebyi bya lava xiyimo, kambe lavaxiyimo lavanga khomba ava pfumeleriwa kuya nghena eka vukhomba bya mani na mani hinkarhi lowu avaswitsakela.

Lebyi bya tshikanda (ku tiyisa vhusha) a byiva kona loko kungaseva na dombani, endzhaku ka malembe ya nharhu kumbe mune. Laha dombani, ari kombisa kufika emakumu ka vukhomba lebyi, leswi akuva kuri ku lulamela ku tekiwa. Ku biwa ka mhala mhala (phala phala) a swi kombisa kusungula ka vukhomba.Ndzilo wohlawuleka, awuta tshiveriwa emutini wa hosi, laha awuta pfurha kukondza vukhomba byi hela. Swikhombani a switshunguriwa hi murhi, naswona sin’wana na xin’wana lexi axi tirhisiwa axi nyunyeteriwa murhi kusivela kuva swingeneleriwa hi mimoya yobiha. Swikhombani hinkwaswo aswi byewuriwa, naswona kuringana nkarhi hinkwawo wa dombani avanga pfumeleriwi ku byewula kumbe ku hlamba. Hi ndzhavuko dombani ariri na marhengu ya 10, lawa yatekaka malembe yambirhi, kambe namuntlha aswitalanga leswaku ya hundzisa nkaye wa tinhweti. Swikhombani swidyondzisiwa ku cina na tinsimu ta xihundla, vakombiwa na switirhisiwa swa xihundla, va languta naku hoxa xandla eka ku dyondzisiwa kunga tirhisiwi marito, xikan’we naku kuma dyondzo ya swamasangu. Xikongomelo iku dyondzisa vanhwenyani lavantsongo hinkwaswo leswi fambelanaka na vukati, xikan’we na maendlelo ya Xivenda. Leswi switekiwa tani hi ntirho wa tiko hinkwaro hi va Venda, dombani yingava kona ehansi ka vulawuri bya hosi ya rixaka ra Singo.

Lexi nyanyulaka eka dombani i ncino wa domba lowu ciniwaka vanhwenyani etlhelo ka ndzilo wo hlawuleka. Swikhombani swi endla ntila, un’wana na un’wana a khome xikokola xa nhwana loyi anga emahlweni ka yena, laha va endlaku chayeni yoleha swinene leswi fambaka hi maendlelo ya kahle lawa ya landzelelaka nghoma (ngoma) na mirumba. Kuya hi xintu vanhwenyani lava va cina vanga ambalangi nchumu, kambe masiku lawa va ambarisiwa shedu leyi sivaka laha ka swirho swa xihundla. Vatlhela va ambala na vusenga emavokweni nale milengeni lebyi endlaka mpfumawulo loko va cina. Ncino lowu wu endla xivumbeko xa nhlarhu, lexi fambelanisiwaka na kukota kutswala na ndlela leyi nwana a famba fambisaka xiswona endzeni ka xivelelkelo. Switlhela swi yimela nhlarhu leyi kutshembiwaka leswaku yi tshama e Fundudzi, tiva ro hlawuleka ra va Venda e Soutpansberg valley. Khumbi ra khoro i miri wa nhlarhu ya swikwembu, naswona ndyangu wuyimela Lake Fundudzi, ndzhawu ya ntumbuluko, xivelekelo; swikhombani swiva swiri endzeni ka xivelekelo xa nhlarhu, swilulamele kutswariwa nakambe tani hi swirho leswi lulameleke ku tekiwa naku hlonipheka evanhwini.

Matitwelo yo Hambana Hambana hi Ngoma

©Dr Peter Magubane
Tikereke ta vakriste tina matitwelo yohambana loko swita eka vukhomba, laha van’wana vayirisaka swirho swa vona ku endla vukhomba. Tikereke tin’wana letitiyimeleke hitoxe ti hlohletela swirho kuti nghenelerisa eka vukhomba, naswona vanwana vatlhela vapfuneta hikuva vakatsa maendlelo ya xintu na vukriste.

Ku cinca kunwana kutisiwile hi dyondzo ya ximanguva lawa, swibedlhele kukatsa na kuva vanhu vasuka vaya tirhela ekule nale kaya, kambe vanhwenyani votala vaha khombisiwa na sweswi. Khale, aswinga pfumeleriwi leswaku wanuna wa mu Venda anga teka wansati loyi anga khombangiki kumbe kunghenela dombani. Loko o teka wansati wa rixaka rin’wani kungava mu Tsonga kumbe mu Sotho, ata fanela kuva a hundza hile ka dombani. Namuntlha, xikongomelo xakuva swihkombani swiya ikuya dyondza milawu kumbe kukuma vutlharhi (u guda milayo). Ku tiva milawu (milayo) swiendla leswaku wansati atitwa ari na vutivi byokarhi lebyi nwi endlaka leswaku a kota ku nghenela tinhlengeletano na migingiriko yokarhi.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni