Mandela na khansele ya All-In National Action

© Eric Miller

Usunguriwa ka Umkhonto we Sizwe

Mandela na va All-In National Action Council vateke xiboho xo lulamisa ku kombisa kuvilela mayelana nakuva kuvuriwe leswaku tiko ra Afrika Dzonga riva Republic hiti 31 May 1961. Ava lava kululamisa xitereke xa masiku ya nharhu xa stay-at-home strike hiti 29, 30 nati 31 May 1961. Mandela a boheka kuya tumbela leswaku anga khomiwi hi maphorisa.

Mandela na Walter Sisulu vafambile tiko hinkwaro exihundleni vakarhi valulamisela xitereka lexi. Mandela (loyi avitaniwa Black Pimpernel hinkarhi walowo) ari munhu loyi ari kulaviweni hi maphorisa kuringana lembe na hafu. Endzhaku kaloko ku humesiwe maphorisa yotala lava avata tirhana na vatereki, Mandela uvuye a yimisa xitereka hi siku ravumbirhi.

Hinkari lowu, yena na van’wani va vatirhi kulori vayena vavuye va ehleketa leswaku madzolonga aya lulamelanga tiko ra Afrika Dzonga naswona varhangeri va Afrika hinkwayo vangeyi emahlweni na nawu wa vona wopfumala madzolonga loko mfumo wupfumelelana na timfanelo ta ximunhu ni madzolonga xikan’we na kususumetiwa.

Xiboho xosungula MK (Umkhonto we Sizwe – the Spear of the Nation), axingari xa ANC, kambe vanhu van’wana eka ANC vayisungurile. Nelson Mandela ari commander-in-Chief wosungula wa MK.

Ku khomiwa ka Nelson Mandela

Hi 1962 Mandela u tsemakanye ndzelekano kuya eka ndzhawu ya xihundla kuya vonaka swinga languteriwanga eka Pan-African Freedom Movement Conference e Addis Ababa. U hlamuserile leswaku hikokwalaho ka yini Umkhonto we Sizwe ayi fanele kusungula ku hlasela.

Eka rendzo rayena, uvuye akuma kuleteriwa tani hi guerrilla e Algeria atlhela aya e London laha anga hlangana na varhangeri va mavandla yo kaneta yale Britain. Loko Mandela avuya laha Afrika Dzonga, uvye a khomiwa hiti 5 August kusuhi nale Howick e Natal. Mandela u tengisiwile e Pretoria's Old Synagogue nakona hi November 1962 a gweviwa ntlhanu wa maelmbe kuva a humile laha tikweni swingari enawini.

U sungurile kutirhela xigwevo xa yena e Pretoria Central Prison. Loko Mandela ahari e jele, maphorisa vasuke vaya secha tihofisi nkulu ta ANC a Liliesleaf Farm e Rivonia, laha vanga fika vakhoma swirho swotani hi, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Ahmed Kathrada, Dennis Goldberg na Lionel Bernstein.

Maphorisa vakume na maphepha lawa aya hlamusela tindlela to endla hitona swibuluki, diary ya Mandela leyi ayi hlamusela kahle rendzo rakwe ra Africa xikan’we na nkandziyiso wa draft memorandum - 'Operation Mayibuye' – leyi ayi hlamusela kahle tindlela na matirhele ya guerrilla struggle.

Ku gweviwa vutomi hinkwabyo

Hi October 1963 Mandela utisiwile kusuka e jele kuva ata katsana na vanwana va nhungu laha ava hehliwa hi milandzu yaku lava ku vutla mfumo, kupfuneta mavuthu yale handle kunghena e Afrika Dzonga. Marito ya Mandela loko a ri e bokisini ute, "Ndzi tiyimiserile ku fa" leswinga vuya swiduma swinene emisaveni hinkwayo.

Hiti 12 June 1964, vabohiwa lava hinkwavo va gweviwile kutshama ekhotsweni vutomi bya vona hinkwabyo. Eka madyambu lawa ya landzelaka Nelson Mandela u hahisiwile kuya e Cape Town leswaku ataya pfaleriwa e khotsweni ra Robben Island laha anga tshama kona kuya fikela hi April 1982, laha anga cinciwa a yisiwa Pollsmoor Prison kusuhi nale Cape Town.

Kuvuye kuva na pfhumba rikulu swinene ra kuchuchiwa ka Mandela leringa simekiwa hi 1982 laha Afrika Dzonga nale matikweni mambe. Matiko yotala yale handle ya tise ntshikelelo eka mfumo wa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga leswaku va chucha Mandela e khotsweni, loyi hinkarhi walowo ari mubohiwa wo duma swinene loyi a khomeriwe swa tipolotiki emisaveni hinkwayo.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni