UMandela ne All-In National Action Council

© Eric Miller

Ukusekwa koMkhonto Wesizwe

uMandela ne All-In National Action Council bagqiba okokuba benze iindibano ezi chasene nokokuba uMzantsi Afrika aziswe njenge Republic ngomhla we 31 May ngonyaka ka 1961. Babefuna ukuququzelela uqhanqalazo lwentsuku ezintathu zokuhlala endlini ngale mihla: 29,30,31 May ngo 1961. uMandela kwanyanzeleka angene phantsi komhlaba ukuze angabanjwa.

uMandela no Walter Sisulu babehamba ilizwe emfihlakalweni besenza amalungiselelo oluqhanqalazo. Lo ka Mandela (wayene gama adlaliswa ngalo kusithiwa ngu Black Pimpernel ngeloxesha) wabangu mphambukeli ithuba elingango nyaka onesiqingatha. Emveni koku khutshwa kwamapolisa amaninzi ekhutshelwa abaqhanqalazi, uMandela walunqumamisa oluqhanqalazo ngosuku lwesibini.

Ngelixesha ke, yena nabanye asebenza nabo bagqiba okokuba udlame eMzantsi Afrika lalunga nqandeki, kwaye iinkokheli zaseAfrika zazingakwazi ukuqhubeka ngomthetho ochasene nodlame xa urhulumente wayezalisekisa amalungelo abantu ngodlame nendlovu iyangena. Isigqibo sokuseka I-MK (Umkhonto Wesizwe - the Spear of the Nation), yayingesosigqibo se ANC, kodwa abantu abathile kwi ANC bagqiba okokuba bayiseke. uNelson Mandela ke waba yi Commander-in-Chief yokuqala kwi MK.

Ukubanjwa kuka Nelson Mandela

Ngonyaka ka 1962 uMandela wanqumla amazwe ngemfihlo, efuna ukufika engalindelekanga kwi nkomfa ye Pan- African Freedom Movement eAddis Ababa. Wacacisa ke kule nkomfa okokuba kutheni uMkhonto Wesizwe kufuneka uqalise ukuhlasela. Kolu hambo lwakhe waye walolongwa kwi Guerilla eAlgeria, waze wathabatha uhambo oluya eLondon apho athe wadibana nenkokheli zemibutho ephikisayo zase Britani.

Ekubuyeni kwakhe kweli loMzantsi waye wabanjwa ngomhla ka 5 August ngase Howick eNatal. ityala lakhe laye labanjelwa kwindlu yenkonzo endala ngo November ngonyaka ka 1962 waze wabanjwa iminyaka emihlanu (5) ngokwenza ingxwabangxwaba nokuphuma eMzantsi Afrika ngoku ngekho semthethweni. Waqala isigwebo sakhe ePretoria Central Prison, ze amapolisa aphengulula ii ofisini ezinkulu ze ANC eLiliesleaf Farm eRivonia, amapolisa abamba amalungu anje ngo Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Ahmed Kathrada, Dennis Goldberg, kunye no Lionel Bernstein.

Amapolisa afumana impepha ezichaza ngokwenziwa kweziqhushumbisi, incwadana ka Mandela echaza ngohambo lwakhe lwase Afrika, kunye nempepha ze memorandum – ‘Operation Mayibuye’ – le ke yayichaza indlela ethile yomlo owaziwa ngokuba ngumzabalazo we guerilla.

Ukuvalelwa Ubomi

Ngonyaka ka 1963 ngenyanga ka October, uMandela wasuswa entolongweni wadityaniswa nabanye abasibhozo ababe netyala loku ngcatsha, ukuceba ukubhukuqa umbuso nge nguqu, nokunceda amajoni amanye amazwe angene eMzantsi Afrika. Amazwi ka Mandela edokisini ayesithi, “Ndikulungele ukufa” oku ke kwaduma ilizwe lonke. Ngomhla we 12 kwinyanga yesilimela (June) ngonyaka ka 1964, bonke abatyholwa bagwetywa ubomi entolongweni.

Emvakwe mini elandelayo uNelson Mandela wakhweliswa inqwelo moya eya Ekapa, kwintolongo yase Robben Island apho ke wabanjwa de yabangumhla ka April ngo 1982, apho wasiwa khona kwintolongo iPollsmoor kufuphi nase Kapa. uMkhankaso omkhulu woku ‘khulula uMandela’ wasekwa ngo 1982, eMzantsi Afrika naphesheya. Amazwe amaninzi abeka uxinzelelo kurhulumente woMzantsi Afrika okokuba akhulule uMandela, ngelo xesha waye lelona banjwa lezopolitiko lidumileyo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie