UMandela kanye noMkhandlu-wonke weNational Action Council

© Eric Miller

Ukwakhiwa kukaMkhonto weSizwe

UMandela kanye noMkhandlu weNarha kaZwelonke weNarha banquma ukuhlelwa kwemibhikisho ngokumelene nokumenyezelwa kweSewula Afrika njengeRiphabhliki ngomhlaka-31 kuNhlaba 1961. Bafuna ukuhlela isiteleka samalanga amathathu sokuhlala ekhaya ngo-29, 30 no-31 1961.

UMandela kumele ahambe ngaphansi komhlaba, ukuze agweme ukuboshwa. UMandela noWalter Sisulu bahamba behamba behamba behamba bebodwa behlezi ngasese behlela ukucaciswa kwesiteleka. UMandela (ogama lakhe linguMnyama Pimpernel ngaleso sikhathi) wayengumbaleki cishe unyaka nonyaka.

Ngemuva kokuphuma kwamaphoyisa emaphoyiseni, uMandela wabiza isiteleka ngosuku lwesibili. Ngalesi sikhathi, yena kanye nabanye osebenza nabo banquma ukuthi ubudlova baseNingizimu Afrika bekungenakugwemeka, nokuthi abaholi base-Afrika abakwazi ukuqhubeka nenqubomgomo yabo engekho nobudlova lapho uhulumeni ehlangabezana nezidingo zamalungelo wobuntu ngobudlova nokuphoqa.

Isinqumo sokwakha i-MK (Umkhonto WeSizwe - i-Spear of the Nation), asizange i-ANC, kodwa abantu abathile e-ANC banquma ukuyidala. UNelson Mandela wayengumphathi wokuqala we-MK.

Ukuboshwa kukaNelson Mandela

Ngo-1962 uMandela wawela umngcele ngasese ukuze enze ukubonakala okumangaze eNkomfeni ye-Pan-African Freedom Movement e-Addis Ababa. Wachazela ingqungquthela ukuthi uMkhonto weSizwe wenzani ukuhlaselwa kokuqala. Ohambweni lwakhe, wathola ukuqeqeshwa kwama-guerrilla e-Algeria futhi waya eLondon lapho ehlangana khona nabaholi bamaqembu aphikisayo aseBrithani.

Ngesikhathi uMandela ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika, wathathwa ngo-5 Agasti ngaseHowick eNatali. UMandela wazama eNkantolo eNkulu yasePitoli futhi ngoNovemba 1962 ugwetshwe iminyaka emihlanu ejele ngenxa yokunyusa nokushiya ngokungemthetho ezweni. Uqale lesi sigwebo ePrison Prison ePitoli.

Ngesikhathi uMandela esejele, amaphoyisa ahlasela indlunkulu ye-ANC eLiliesleaf Farm eRivonia, ebopha amalungu afana noWalter Sisulu, uGevan Mbeki, uRaymond Mhlaba, u-Ahmed Kathrada, uDennis Goldberg noLieonel Bernstein.

 Amaphoyisa athole amaphepha aphathelene nokukhiqizwa kweziqhumane, idayari kaMandela yokuvakasha kwakhe e-Afrika kanye namakhophi e-memorandamu - 'Operation Mayibuye' - echaza indlela yokulwa nombhikisho.

Ukuboshwa Ejele

Ngo-Mfumfu 1963 uMandela wathathwa ejele ukuze abeyingxenye yabanye abayisishiyangalombili abanamacala ahlanganisa ugobe lokuqothula uhulumeni ngokuguqulwa, nokusiza ukuhlasela kweNingizimu Afrika ngamabutho angaphandle.

Isitatimende sikaMandela esivela emgodini, "Ngilungele ukufa" okwakusatshalaliswa emhlabeni wonke. Ngomhla ka-12 Nhlangulana 1964, bonke abasolwa bagwetshwa ukuboshwa ejele.

Ngobusuku olulandelayo uNelson Mandela wagijima waya eCape Town ehamba ejele eRobben Island ejele lapho egcinwe khona ngo-Mbasa 1982, ngesikhathi edluliselwa ejele lasePollsmoor eliseduze neKapa.

Umkhankaso omkhulu wokukhululwa kukaMandela wamiswa ngo-1982 eNingizimu Afrika nakwamanye amazwe. Amazwe amaningi angaphandle abeka ingcindezi kuhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika ukukhulula uMandela, owabe eseyisiboshwa sezwe sezwe esidumile kunazo zonke.

Translated by Nsika Khoza