Terms used in Goat Farming

© Valley Vet supply
A Gambrel restrainer is used to control goats. It slips over the head and locks the front legs in place.

The following terms used in Goat Farming in South Africa are explained below

A
Abomasum: The fourth or true digestive part of a ruminant's stomach that contains gastric juices and enzymes that begin the breakdown of complex materials.
Abortifacients: A drug or other agent used to cause abortion. Other agents could be considered as toxins or poisons from plants, trees, etc.
Abortion: Expulsion of the fetus (or fetuses) by a pregnant female before the normal end of a pregnancy.
Acidosis: A condition when the rumen becomes too acid. Usually due to the over-consumption of grain.
ADF: Acid Detergent Fiber. An indicator of the relative digestibility of forages.
Aflatoxin: Toxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Afterbirth: The fetal membranes that attach the fetus to the membranes of the pregnant female and which are normally expelled from the female within 3 to 6 hours after birth.
AI: Artificial Insemination. The technique that involves breeding of females without the males being physically present.
Ante-mortem: Before death.
Anthelmintic: A compound that kills or expels internal parasites - such as worms.
Antibiotic: Chemical compounds from living cells, that inhibit growth or kill microorganisms.
Artificial Rearing: Raising a kid on milk or milk replacer.
Atrophy: Wasting away or decreasing in size of cells, organs or entire body; due to disuse, disease or severe malnutrition.

B
Banding: This involves the use of castration rings (bands) to remove the testicles.
Billy: Male goat, frequently used to describe an older, adult male goat - non-wether.
Body Condition Score: A value from 1 to 5 (thin to fat) used to estimate the condition of an animal.
Bolus: A large oval shaped pill containing antibiotics.
Bots: Tiny larvae that crawl into nasal passages.
Breeding Season: The period of time when the doe is showing estrus.
Brood Doe: A doe kept for the purpose of continuing a desirable bloodline and genetics in her offspring.
Browse: Broad-leafed woody plant, shrub or brush.
Browsing: Goats moving from place to place as they eat various foliage and browse along the path.
Brucellosis: Infection with bacteria of the Brucella group, frequently causing abortions in animals and remittent fever in humans. Also called Undulant fever, Malta fever, or Mediterranean fever.
Buck: Male goat.
Buckling: Baby male goat.
Burdizzo: Tool used to castrate bucks by severing the cord without breaking the skin of the scrotum.
Butting: Method of fighting among goats (especially bucks) by the striking of the head and horns.

C
CAE: Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis, a goat virus similar to AIDS in humans.
Calcium to Phosphorus Ratio Relative amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the total ration. Usually recommended to be at least 2:1.
Chevon: Goat meat.
CC: Cubic centimeter, same as ml. 3cc = 3ml are the same thing in injections.
Chlamydia: Small organisms associated with pneumonia, abortion, diarrhoea, conjunctivitis, arthritis and encephalitis.
Chlamydiosis: Type of infectious abortion.
CL: Caseous Lymphadenitis, an abscess disease of goats that is highly contagious.
Cloning: The production of genes or individuals which are genetically the same as the donor.
Clostridial Organisms: Anaerobic bacteria that produce spores under certain conditions.
Cocci: An oxycyt that destroys the lining of the small intestine causing diarrhoea and death; (also known as coccidiosis)
Coccidiosis: An oxycyt that destroys the lining of the small intestine causing diarrhoea and death; (also known as cocci)
Colostrum: The first milk full of antibodies for the kids, essential to their life.
Corpus luteum: A ductless gland developed within the ovary by the reorganization of a Graafian follicle after ovulation. Also known as an extract of this gland of the pig or cow, the chief principle of which is progesterone. Plural = corpora lutea.
Corticosteroids: Any of a class of steroids, such as aldosterone, hydrocortisone, or cortisone, occurring in nature as a product of the adrenal cortex or synthesized. Also called corticoid.
Creep: An enclosure into which young (small) animals may enter but larger animals cannot. Any feeders in this area or in farrowing crates or parturition pen that are only accessible to the young are called creep feeders.
Critical Temperature: Maximum or minimum environmental temperature tolerated by the animal before additional dietary energy is required to maintain normal body temperature.
Crossbred: The offspring resulting from mating a buck and doe of different breeds.
Crossbreeding: Mating plan involving two or more breeds.
Cryptosporidiosis: An organism that proliferates in the small intestine.
Culling: The process of removing animals that are below average in production, unsound or undesirable.
Culls: Goats which are below a required standard.
Custom Feeding: The practice of having livestock fed and managed for the livestock owner in another facility for a fee.
Cut: To castrate.
Cysticercosis: The condition where a larval form of a tapeworm has encysted or embedded itself in the tissue of its host.

D
Dehydrate: The loss of body fluids by fever, virus or heat.
Disbudding: The practice of removing the horns on a goat.
Doe: Female goat.
Doeling: Baby female goat.
Drenching: The oral administration of medication.
Drylot : A penned area for holding the herd for an extended period with or without housing.
Dry Matter (DM): The portion of feed that is not water.

E
Elastrator: Instrument used to apply heavy rubber bands (elastrator rings/bands) to tail and scrotum for docking and castration. Some breeders also used this method for disbudding.
Embryo Transfer: Recently fertilized eggs from donor doe are transferred to the uterus of a recipient doe, usually by surgically exposing the uterus of the recipient.
Emaciation: To waste away physically.
Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain usually with severe signs such as fever, incoordination and convulsions.
Enteritis: An inflammation of the intestinal tract.
Enterotoxemia: Actually misnamed ‘overeaters’, it is a toxin in all healthy goats, that multiplies with a stressor to cause stomach cramps and death.
Enterotoxemia Type C: Disease that affects goats in the first two weeks of life causing bloody infection of the small intestine and rapid death.
Enterotoxemia Type C and D Toxoid: Vaccination are given to young goats to build up antibodies against Enterotoxemia type C and D. It is also available combined with tetanus vaccination.
Enterotoxemia Type D: Disease that affects unvaccinated goats that have been placed on high energy diets.
Entropion: A heritable trait in which the lower eyelid is inverted, causing the eyelashes of the lower lid to brush against the eye.
Estrogen: Hormone that causes regression of the corpus luteum and stimulates estrus (to go on heat).
Estrous Cycle: The time period from the beginning of one heat to the beginning of the next heat. Usually about 16-17 days.
Estrus: The period of time when the female is sexually receptive to the male. Usually 24 - 36 hours, also known as ‘heat’.
External Parasite: Parasites that may be found on the hair, skin and in the nasal and ear passages.

F
Fecundity: Efficiency of an individual in the production of young. Animals that bring forth young frequently, regularly, and produce more than one offspring at a birthare said to be fecund.
Fertility: The ability to produce offspring.
Fetus: The unborn young in the later stages of development.
Flehmen response: A behaviour whereby a goat curls back its upper lips exposing its front teeth, inhales with the nostrils usually closed and then often holds this position for several seconds.
Flight Zone: Maximum zone of comfort or security of animals.
Flushing: Management practice of improving a doe's plan of nutrition just prior to mating to improve her ovulation rate.
Foot Bath: Chemical and water mixture, that goats stand in, used for the prevention and/or treatment of foot rot and foot scald.
Forage: Fiber-containing feedstuffs such as silage, hay and pasture.
Forcing Pen: Pen used to confine animals prior to moving them into treatment chutes.
Freshen: To come into milk.

G
Galactopoiesis: Stimulating milk production.
Gambrel Restrainer: Restraining device that is a gambrel-shaped piece of plastic that is placed over the top of the animal's neck, with slots on either side to hold both front legs of the animal.
Gastroenteritis: An inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
Gestation: Period of pregnancy beginning at conception and ending with birth, usually 142 to 152 days.
Grafting: Fostering a kid onto a doe that is not its natural mother.
Group Fed: Feeding system where all animals in a group are fed at one time.
Guard Dog: A dog that stays with the goats without harming them and aggressively repels predators.

H
HACCP: Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, an internationally recognized and recommended approach to food safety that anticipates and prevents hazards associated with ingredients.
Heat: See estrus.
Helminths: Parasitic worms.
Herd: Herd is a term that describes a small (or large) group of goats. Goats are ‘herd’ animals meaning that they will thrive better with one or more of their same kind in numbers. By comparison, almost every species is given a specific group term such as ‘flock’ of geese, ‘pride’ of lion and a ‘pack’ of dogs.
Hypocalcemia: Low levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypomagnesemia: Low levels of magnesium in the blood.
Hypothermia: Inability to keep warm often caused by cold or wet weather.

I
IM: Intramuscularly, to inject into the muscle.
Immunity: Developing a resistance to a specific pathogenic microorganism.
Intermediate Host: An animal or another living body in which a parasite completes part of its life cycle and usually causes no damage.
Internal Parasites: Parasites located in the stomach, lungs and intestines of goats.
International Unit (IU): Unit of measurement of vitamins and drugs.
Iodine: Disinfectant used on navels of newborn goats that helps dry up the navel, thus closing the passageway into the body of the goat. Also applied to hooves of newborns by some breeders. Veterinary iodine contains 7% iodine while iodine for human use contains 2% iodine.

J
Jacobson's Organ: Also known as the vomeronasal organ is mainly used to detect pheromones, chemical messengers that carry information between individuals of the same species hence is sometimes referred to as the ‘sixth sense’.
Johnes: A wasting disease of ruminants, contagious in their faecal matter (poop).

K
Keds: Bloodsucking ticks that pierce the skin causing serious damage to the skins.
Ketones: Compounds found in the blood of pregnant goats suffering from pregnancy toxaemia.
Known Carrier An animal that has produced offspring with a genetic defect.
Kid(s) Baby goats of either sex.
Kidding Having babies.

L
Lactation: The period of time when the doe is producing milk. Normally from the birth of a kid to weaning.
Lactated Ringers Solution: Used for adding body fluids to a dehydrated goat (known as LRS).
Legumes: Family of plants bearing seeds in a pod. Alfalfa hay is an example of a legume.
Leucocyte (leukocyte): Usually referring to white blood cells.
Liver Flukes: Small leaf-shaped organisms that roll up like a scroll in the bile ducts or liver tissue.
Loading Chute: A chute used for loading animals into a truck or trailer.
Lochia: The dark blood discharge a doe has for several weeks after kidding.
LRS: Used for adding body fluids to a dehydrated goat (known as Lactated Ringer's Solution or Ringer Lactate).
Lungworms: Roundworms found in the respiratory tract and lung tissue.

M
Mange Mites: Mites which infest and damage the skin and hair.
Manure: Poop, nanny berries, fecal matter, excrement.
Mastitis: Inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection, resulting in reduced milk production.
Metritis: An inflammation of the uterus.
Milk Fever: Substantial reduction in plasma calcium which interferes with nerve transmission, causing partial or almost total paralysis occurring at or just giving birth and initiation of lactation.
Milk Replacer: Artificial milk substitute fed to young goats.
Mineral: Inorganic substance found naturally in all body cells, tissues and fluids.
Mitigation: To make less harsh or severe; using goats to control brush or weeds is commonly referred to as mitigation.
ml milliliter: same as cc; 3cc and 3ml are the same thing in shots. 1000 ml = 1 liter
Monogastric: An animal with a single compartment stomach. Goats are not monogastric.
Mycotoxin: Toxic compounds produced by fungi.

N
Nanny: A mother goat.
Natural Immunity: Inherited resistance to disease that varies between breeds, strains within breeds and individuals.
Necropsy: Examination of a dead animal to determine the cause of death.
Nematode: Also called Roundworms, nematodes are among the most abundant creatures occurring as parasites in animals and plants or as free-living forms in soil, freshwater, marine environments and even in vinegar and beer malts.
Nitrate Poisoning: Condition in which toxic levels of nitrates accumulate in plants.
Nose Bots: Tiny larvae that crawl into nasal passages.

O
Oesophagal Feeder: Tube placed down the oesophagus of a goat to administer milk or other liquid.
Omasum: The third part of the ruminant stomach located between the reticulum and the abomasum.
Oocyst: A stage in the life of coccidia (a protozoal parasite) that is excreted in manure. Goats become infected by ingesting oocysts from contaminated pastures.
Orifice: The hole in the end of a teat.
Ovary: Primary female reproductive organ.
Over the Counter Drugs (OTC): Drugs that can be purchased directly by the producer and that does not need a prescription from a vet.

P
Palatability Taste: This refers to how keenly a goat will choose from among several different choices of feed.
Parasite: An organism that lives off of a host.
Parous: Females that have produced young.
Parturient Paresis: Substantial reduction in the levels of plasma calcium which interferes with nerve transmission, causing partial or almost total paralysis occurring at giving birth and at initiation of lactation.
Parturition: The act of bringing forth young; childbirth.
Pinkeye: A highly contagious disease that affects the eyes of goats (also contagious to humans).
Placenta: The big membrane that the doe expels after kidding.
Post Mortem: After death.
Postpartum: Afterbirth.
Prepartum: Before birth.
Pregnancy Toxemia: A metabolic disease of pregnant does generally caused by a diet deficient in energy during late pregnancy.
Probiotic: Living organisms used to manipulate fermentation in the rumen.
Progeny: Offspring.
Prolificacy (fecundity): The number of offspring actually produced by a female.
Protein: Nitrogen-based essential nutrient, composed of chains of amino acids, that is present in all living things.
Protein Supplement: Feedstuff that contains a high level of protein. Fed to animals in addition to their base diet.

R
Ration: A mixture of feedstuffs fed to animals over a 24 hour period.
Rehydrate: The addition of body fluids which have been lost from fever, illness, heat, etc.
Rennet: Extracted from the fourth stomach, the enzyme component rennin is used to coagulate milk.
Reticulo-Rumen: Section of the ruminant gastrointestinal tract consisting of the reticulum and the rumen that is the primary site for microbial fermentation of feedstuffs.
Reticulum: The second compartment of the ruminant stomach, also known as the second stomach. The lining has a honeycombed appearance to increase the surface area for absorption.
Rigor Mortis: The permanent contraction of skeletal muscle associated with death.
Roughage: Coarse, bulky feed high in fibre such as hay, straw and silage.
Rumen: The large first compartment of a ruminant's stomach containing microbial population that is capable of breaking down forages and roughages.
Rumen-Reticulum: Pregastric fermentation chamber that hosts a large microbial population.
Ruminant: A group of animals that chew their cud and characteristically have a four-compartment stomach.
Rumination: The process of regurgitating food to be rechewed.

S
Scours: Diarrhea usually only associated with incorrect milk feeding.
Shipping Fever: Respiratory disease usually accompanying transport.
Silage: Green forage converted to a succulent feed of 30% - 40% dry matter for goats by storing without air (as in silo or in air-tight bags).
Sire The father.
Soremouth: A highly contagious (also to humans), a viral infection that causes scabs around mouth, nostrils, eyes and may affect udders of lactating does.
SubQ: Subcutaneous, under the skin shot (sometimes written as SQ or sq).
Synchronization: A management practice used to cause the goats to cycle at the same time.
Systemic Disease: A disease where more than one portion of the body is affected; often the whole body or one or more systems.

T
Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN): Standard system for expressing the energy value of feeds.
Trace Minerals (TM): Minerals that are required in very small amounts.

U
Urinary Calculi: Metabolic disease of male lambs characterized by the formation of stones within the urinary tract. It is caused primarily by an imbalance of dietary calcium and phosphorus.
Uterus: Portion of the female reproductive tract where the embryo develop prior to birth (womb).

V
Vaccination: Injection given to healthy animals to stimulate prolonged immunity to specific diseases.
Vaginal Prolapse: Protrusion of the vagina in does in late pregnancy.
Vitamins: Small organic compounds, necessary for proper metabolism, that are found in feed in minute amounts. Deficiencies result in distinct diseases or syndromes.
Vomeronasal Organ: Also known as Jacobson's Organ, is mainly used to detect pheromones, chemical messengers that carry information between individuals of the same species, hence is sometimes referred to as the ‘sixth sense’.

W
Wether: Castrated male.
White Muscle Disease: A disease caused by a deficiency of selenium, Vitamin E or both that causes degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscles of goats.
Withdrawal Period (or time): The time when a drug must not be administered prior to marketing to ensure that no drug residues remain in the meat or milk.

Y
Yearling: A one-year-old goat.

Z
Zoonosis: Diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans.
Zygote: The product of fertilization, ie. a cell formed from the union of an oocyte and a spermatozoan.

By Gary Pfalzbot, Goatworld