Umlandvo wemaNdebele

Emacembu-lamancane eSive semaNdebele

©Dr Peter Magubane
Umlandvo wemaNdebele ufaka sikhatsi lesisemkhatsini sandvulo selishumi nemfica ngesikhatsi licembu lelincane lebantfu le Kekana lesive semaNdebele sahlukana saba ngemacembu lamancane, lokwasakaka kwaphumela etintsabeni, etigodzini letincae kanye nasentindzaweni letivulekile letigegelete iPotgietersrus nalamuhla, iZebediela ne Pietersburg. Lamacembu akhula abamba kungenela enombolweni lenkhulu kanye nekukhula lokugegetele emacembu emaSotho, lushintjo lwengucuko lehambako. Ngekubuka, balandzeli besikhulu semaNdebele Manala na Ndzundza bagcina bungibo lobubonakalako bemasiko, baphindze bagcina lulwimi labatalwa nalo. Pente-wetindlu, kusebenta ngebuhlalu kanye netintfo letinhle letivama kukhulunywa njengemaNdebele ngutona tentiwa kakhulu ngema Ndzundza emaNdebele ase southern Transvaal yaphambilini.

Ngeminyaka ya 1820, emazibithi akhetsa kutsi bekukhona tindlu tema Ndzundza lebetisakake ngebubanti ngase Steelpoort. Lokusakaka kwalamakhaya kwentiwa yincenye yekuswa yinkhosi Mzilikazi kanye nebalandzeli bakhe, kepha nekuhlangahlangana kwemacembu lamancane ngemuva kwekushona kweSikhulu Magodongo. Kusuka ngemnyaka wa 1840, balimi labamhlophe (eMabhunu), lebe akadze ahamba etindzaweni letiphakeme ngekukhulisa inombolo kusuka ngemnyaka wa 1830, acala kungenela tindzawo lebetihlala emaNdzundza emaNdebele. Kuhlala kwemaBhunu kwangena emkhatsini wemfula weOlifants ne Steelpoort, kepha lelibanga lalamadolobha lamabili kulesikhulu libamba kucina kwe Konomtjharhelo, leyacalwa ngemasotja emaNdzundza eMabhoko, kwabonisa kutsi emaBhunu nemaNdzundza ayafana. eMabhunu etama kususa lobukhosi kepha ehluleka. Kulandzela tintfo letintsatfu letingaphumelelanga tekubhekana, lamanye afaka eMaswati nemasotja emaBhunu, lamanye emaBhunu ashiya lendzawo ngaphandle kwelitsemba, abe lamanye atfola emandla eMabhoko aphindze amukhalela. Ekupheleni kweminyaka ya 1860 na 1870, emandla eNdzundza bekasetulu kulesigodzi.

Imphi Ne Mabhunu

Ngemuva kwemnyaka wa 1877, ngalamaBritish latsatsa iTransvaal kanye nekwehlulwa kwemaPedi ngemnyaka wa 1879 ehlulwa ngema British, kulingana ngemandla kwandlulela kwasuka ebukhosini benkhululeko eAfrika kulesigodzi.

Ngelikwindla lemnyaka wa 1883 kwavumbuluka imphi phakatsi kwemaBhunu nemacembu lamancane emaNdebele lamaNdzundza labekangaphansi kwesikhulu Nyabela, nendlela yekugadza kwelibutfo kwabekwa ngemaBhunu langaphansi kwa Khomanda Piet Joubert. Tinyanga letisiphohlongo, Nyabela nalawo maNdzundza labekashiye emakhaya awo langase Steelpoort kuya emacembini lamugegeletele abegadzile eKonomtjharhelo. Lizibithi lelitfolakele nyalo liveta kutsi lamaNdzundza labehlomile bekagujelwe eliningini letindlu letisakateke endzaweni levulekile kakhulu. Lokuphatamiseka kwemaNdebele tinhlanyelo kanye netinkhomo tabo letebiwa kwabasento semphakatsi, lebantfu bawo balanjiswa.

Ngenyanga yaKholwane Nyabela wativeta waphindze washiya imali yakhe sikhatsi sekugcina, abe lamaBhunu lajabulile abeyishisa ngemuva kwakhe. Letimo letabekwa ngulabo bebawinile kulendzawo beyinekuhlukumeta. Nyabela kanye nemalunga lamanye emindeni yasemphakatsini baboshwa, bese yonkhe indzawo yemaNdzundza yatsatfwa yase inikwa lofika kucala kumaBhunu lebakasebente ekugadzeni. Lama Bhunu bekajabulile atsandvwa ngekutsi anikwe kukhetsa kucala ngeNdzundza njengetisebenti talamapulazi. Loku kusho kutsi lamaNdzundza asakaka ngekugcwala etigodzini letiseningizimu ye Republic Transvaal, kufaka ekhatsi tindzawo tase Lydenburg, Middelburg, Standerton ne Wakkerstroom.

eMandebele laseMapulazini alaBamhlophe

Epulazini iKafferskraal, lengekho khashane nelidolobha lelindzala, laMandebele emaNdzundza abamba sikolwa sekusoka (wela) ngekumangalisa ngesento setisebenti temaBhunu. Umphakatsi, lote indzawo lefutsi ingasaphili, beyenta kusoka, iminyaka lemitsatfu ngemuva kwekuphatanyiswa lokuphelele!

Khashane ngekwenta kubulala lisiko lemaNdzundza, loku kwacishe kwangavumi kwakheka kwesimo kumimango leminingi kanye netintfo temasiko nyalo lesekutsatfwa njengemaNdebele lanjalo. Lamanye abolekwa kubomakhelwane emaPedi, kepha akhiwa ngemaNdebele nakasahlala kumapulazi alabamhlophe. Kusoka ‘kwebafana bemaNdzundza kwamelela incenye yemaPedi ngekutsi aphetfwe sikhulu kunekutsi asakateke emakhaya lahlukene kufana nendlela yemaNguni nje. Loku kwafaka kutsintseka kweMandebele lasakaka emapulazini alabamhlophe, lokwavumela lesikhulu kutsi sinake emandla aso ngaphandle kwemukhatsi phakatsi kwetintfo takhe. Lesitayela semaNdzundza sekupenda sasifana naloko lokungiko kwemaPedi, kepha kwakha indlela yetintfo tawo ngemnyaka wa 1940 abe emaNdzundza abephila emapulazini alabamhlophe.

Translated by Phindile Malotana