Umlando wamaNdebele

Amaqembu amaNdebele

©Dr Peter Magubane
Umlando weNdebele uhlanganisa phakathi nekhulu le-19 lapho iqembu likaKekana elibizwa ngokuthi isiNdebele lihlukaniswa ngamaqembu amancane, ahlakazeka emagqumeni, ezigodini nasezintabeni ezizungezile uPitgietersrus, uZebediela noPietersburg. Lawa maqembu ayelokhu engenelela emaqenjini aseSweden aphezulu futhi aphezulu kakhulu, futhi aguquka kakhulu kwamasiko. Ngokuphambene nalokho, inzalo yabaholi bamaNdebele uManala noNdzundza bahlala behlonipha amasiko, futhi bagcina ulimi lwabo lokuqala. Imidwebo yendlu, ubucwebe kanye nokuhlobisa okuvame ukukhulunywa ngokuthi njengeNdebele empeleni ikhiqizwa yiNdzundza Ndebele wenguNgaphambili waseTransvaal.

Ngama-1820, ubufakazi bubonisa ukuthi kwakukhona imizi yaseNdzundza ehlakazekile eduze kwe-Steelpoort. Lokhu kuhlakazeka kwemindeni kwakungenxa yokuhlukunyezwa yinkosi uMzilikazi nabalandeli bakhe, kodwa futhi nasezingxabanweni zomphakathi ngemuva kokufa kukaMengameli Magodongo. Kusukela ngo-1840, abalimi abamhlophe (iBoers), ababebefudukela e-Highveld ngezibalo ezikhulayo kusukela ngo-1830, baqala ukudubula ezindaweni ezithathwe yiNdzundza Ndebele. Izindawo zeBoer zakha phakathi kwemifula yama-Olifants and Steelpoort, kodwa ukusondela kwalezi dolobha kuya enqabeni enkulu yeKonomtjharhelo, eyasungulwa nguhulumeni waseNdzundza uMabhoko, kwafakazela ukuthi uBoer noNdzundza bafana noBoer noNdzundza. UBoer uzama ukunqoba isikhulu sehlulekile. Ukulandela ukuphikisana okungafani okulandelanayo, okunye okuhlangene nakho kwakubandakanya amabutho aseSwazi neBoer, abanye uBoers bashiya indawo ngokuphelelwa yithemba, kanti abanye babona igunya likaMabhoko baze bamkhokhisa. Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka ye-1860 no-1870, amandla kaNdzundza ayephakama esifundeni.

Impi Namabhunu

Ngemuva kuka-1877, ngokuxhaswa kweBrithani kweTransvaal kanye nokunqotshwa kwePedi ngabakwaBrithani ngo-1879, ibhalansi yamandla yashiya umbuso ozimele wase-Afrika esifundeni.
Ekwindla ka-1883 impi yaqala phakathi kweBoers kanye neN Ndebele, uNzundza ngaphansi kwenhloko eNyabela, kanti iBoers ngaphansi koMnumzana uPiet Joubert. Ezinyangeni eziyisishiyagalombili, iNabela kanye nalabo abaNdzundza abaye bashiya izindawo zabo ezihlakazekile eduze kwe-Steelpoort beya eqenjini elizungezile bavimbezelwe eKonomtjharhelo. Ubufakazi bamuva bubonisa ukuthi iNdzundza ehlomile yayibamba uchungechunge lwezindawo zokuqothulwa eziqhamuka endaweni enkulu kakhulu. Ukubhujiswa kwamaNdebele izitshalo kanye nokuqotshwa kwezinkomo zabo kwakuyinhloko yokuqothulwa kwezinduna, abantu babo abaye bafa ngesifo kancane kancane.

NgoJulayi uNyabela wazinikela futhi washiya inhloko-dolobha yakhe okokugcina, njengoba iBoers eyinqobe yahlupha ngemuva kwayo. Izimo ezibekwe yizinqola ezihlukumezekile zazinzima kakhulu. U-Nyabela namanye amalungu omndeni wakubo baboshwa, futhi wonke amazwe aseNdzundza athathwa futhi anikezwa isisekelo sokuqala esiza kubakwaBoers abaye bahlanganyela ekuvinjelweni. AmaBoers ahlukumezekile afanelwa ngokunikezwa kuqala yiNdzundza njengezinceku zasemapulazini ezingenayo. Lokhu kwakusho ukuthi iNdzundza yahlakazeka kakhulu ezindaweni eziseningizimu yeRiphabhuliki yaseTransvaal, kufaka phakathi izifunda zaseLydenburg, eMiddelburg, Standerton naseWakkerstroom.

AmaNdebele Emapulazini Abamhlophe

Epulazini iKafferskraal, engekude nenhloko-dolobha yakudala, iNdiya uNdzundza inesikole sokuqala (isila) esimangalisa izikhulu zeBoer. I-chiefdom, engenawo umhlaba futhi engasasekho, yayimisa ukuqala, eminyakeni emithathu emva kokubhujiswa kwayo ngokuphelele!

Ngaphandle kokubangela ukubhujiswa kwesiko le-Ndzundza, leli phepho elide cishe elikhulu leminyaka lihlinzekela izimo ezinomthelela ezicikisweni eziningi zenhlalo nezamasiko manje ezibhekwa njengesiNdebele. Abanye babesolwa ngokukodwa emphakathini wasePedi, kodwa babanjwe yiNdebele ngenkathi behlala emapulazini amhlophe. Ukuqalwa kwabafana bakaNdzundza kufana nomlingani wakhe wePedi olawulwa yi-chiefs kunokuba ahlakazeke emakhaya ahlukene njengendlela ejwayelekile yeNguni. Lokhu kwathinta imiphumela yeNdebele ekusakazeni emapulazini amhlophe, okwenza inhloko igcine amandla akhe naphezu kokude kakhulu phakathi kwezikhonzi zakhe. Isitayela somdwebo weNdzundza nayo isekelwe ekuqaleni kwePedi, kodwa yahlakulela ifomu layo elinezinhlobo zama-1940 ngenkathi uNdzundza ehlala emapulazini amhlophe.

Translated by Nsika Khoza