Matimu ya maNdebele

Mintlawa Yinharhu ya Rixaka ra maNdebele

©Dr Peter Magubane
Matimu ya maNdebele ya katsa nale xikarhi ka 19th century loko xiphemu xa Kekana xa rixaka ra maNdebele xitava xi avanile kuva swintlawani leswintsongo, leswinga hangalaka kuya etintshaveni, minkova na milambu leyi kumekaka eka tindzhawu leti namuntlha hinge hile Mokopane (Potgietersrus), Zebediela na Polokwane (Pietersburg). Mintlawa leyi yihetelele yi mintiwa hi rixaka leringa tala eka tindzhawu leti laha kunga tala tinxaka ta maSotho kutani vaboheka kuva va cinca mindzhavuko leyi avayi toloverile. Hikokwalaho ka sweswo vana va tihosi ta maNdebele va Manala na Ndzundza vi hlayisile vutitivisi bya vona bya ndzhavuko, kukatsa nakuya emahlweni vatirhisa ririmi ra vona ra ntiyiso. Ku pendiwa ka tiyindlu, vuhlalu xikan’we na swiambalo leswi hlawulekisaka maNdebele swaha humelerisiwa hi maNdebele ya Ndzundza kusuka e khale ka dzonga wa Transvaal.

Hi malembe yava 1820s, vumbhoni byi hlamusela leswaku akuri na mimiti yava Ndzundza leyi ayi hangalakile ekusuhi na Steelpoort. Kuhangalaka loku aku vangiwe hiku pfumala ntshamiseko lowu awu vangiwe hiku hlaseriwa hi hosi Mzilikazi nava landzeri vakwe, hile tlhelo swikatsana na nyimpi leyi ayiri kona eka mintlawa endzhaku ka rifu ra Chief Magodongo. Ku sukela hiva 1840s, van’wamapurasi vavalungu (Boers), lava avari eku teni kuta tshama etindzhawini ta Highveld hi nhlayo yale henhla kusukela hiva 1830s, vasungula ku kavanyeta tindzhawu leti aku tshama maNdebele ya Ndzundza. Tindzhawu ta valungu tisungule ku hangalaka exikarhi ka milambu ya Olifants na Steelpoort rivers, kambe vukule bya swidorobani leswi kuya eka ndzhawu ya hosi Konomtjharhelo, leyi endliweke hi hosi Maboko wa Ndzundza, leswi swikomba swivavise mabunu xikan’we na Ndzundza. Ku ringeta ka mabunu ku tshikelela vuhosi aswi tswalanga mihandzu. Leswi swilandza kutlhontlhiwa koringana ka nharhu loku kunga tswalangiki mihandzu, laha minkarhi yin’wana kunga hlangana mavuthu ya maSwazi na mabunu, van’wana mabunu vasukile eka ndzhawu liya hiku pfumaleka ka ntsako, laha van’wana vanga tekela enhlokweni vulawuri va Mabhoko laha van’wana vanga kota naku n’wixixima. Kuya eku heleni ka malembe yava 1860s kuya ekava 1870s, matimba ya Ndzundza ayari eka xiyimo xale henhla swinene endzhawini liya.

Nyimpi na Mabunu

Endzhaku ka 1877, loko kutava ku katsiwe Britain eka Transvaal xikan’we naku hluriwa ka lembe ra 1879 ka maPedi hima British, kuvile na ku cinca ka matimba kusuka eka vuhosi lebyitiyimelelke bya xi Afrika eka ndzhawu liya. Hi xixikani xa lembe ra 1883 ku pfuke nyimpi exikarhi ka mabunu xikan’we na ntlawa wa maNdebele wa Ndzundza ehansi ka vurhangeri bya hosi Nyabela, naswona maendlelo yo hlasela naku heleriwa hi matimba leswi aswi endliwa hi mabunu ehansi ka Commandant Piet Joubert. Kuringana nhungu wa tinhweti, Nyabela na vaaki va Ndzundza lavanga hangalaka eka tindzhawu leti hangalakeke e Steelpoort kuva vahlengeletana ekusuhi nayena vapfaleriwa e Konomtjharhelo. Vumbhoni lebyintshwa byi hlamusela leswaku ntlawa wa Ndzundza lowu awu hlomile swinene wunghenelerile swinene eka tindzhawu ta vutshamo laha yinga hangalaka eka ndzhawu yikulu. Ku hlaseriwa ka swibyariwa swa maNdebele xikan’we naku tekiwa ka tihomu ta vona a swi endliwa ngopfu hi vuhosi, laha vanhu vavona ava dlayisiwa ndlala leswaku vataza va pfumela.

Hi nhweti ya July Nyabela u hoxe thawula kutani a sukela ntsindza wa yena rohetelela, kava loko mabunu va hisa ntsindza lowu loko a heta ku suka. Swipimelo leswi aswi vekiwe hi lava vanga hlula aswitika swinene. Nyabela xikan’we na swinwana swirho swa vuhosi swivuye swiya pfaleriwa e khotsweni naswona misava hinkwayo ya va Ndzundza yitekiwile kutani yi nyikiwa mabunu kuya hi loyi a rhangaka a fika eka lava vanga hoxa xandla eka nyimpi. Mabunu lavanga hlula ava tsakeriwa swinene hikuva vanyikiwa nkarhi waku hlawula vatirhi vale mapurasini kusuka eka va Ndzundza. Leswi swivula leswaku rixaka ra va Ndzundza ari hangalakile swinene eka tindzhawu tale dzongeni wa Transvaal Republic, kukatsa nale ka tindzhawu ta Lydenburg, Middelburg, Standerton nale Wakkerstroom.

MaNdebele e Mapurasini ya Valungu

E purasini ra Kafferskraal, leringariki kule nale khale ka ntsindza, maNdebele va Ndzundza vave na ngoma (wela) leswinga hlamarisa mabunu. Vuhosi, lebyingariki na misava naswona lebyi abyingaha hanyi, byi yimisa ngoma, malembe yanharhu endzhaku kaloko byi heirsiwile!

Kule swinene na ku cinca ka ndzhavuko wava Ndzundza, ntshikelelo lowu wo leha kuringana kwalomu ka century wutise swiyimo leswinga tisa vutomi na swin’wana swa ndzhavuko leswi sweswi switekiwaka tani hi swa maNdebele. Swin’wana aswi lombiwe eka vaakelani va maPedi, kambe swiake maNdebele hinkarhi lowu ava tshama e mapurasini ya valungu. Ngoma ya vafana va Ndzundza ayi kombisa leswi maPedi laha ava lawuriwa kusuka exikarhi hi vuhosi kungari ku vahangalaka kuya lomu vahumaka kona tani hileswi va Nguni va endlisaka xiswona. Leswi aswi kombisa switandzhaku swa kuhangalasiwa ka maNdebele emapurasini ya valungu, laha aswipfumelela hosi kuva yiva na matimba hambi leswi akuri na mpfhuka exikarhi ka yona na valandzeri vayona. Hambi kuri ndlela leyi va Ndzundza ava pendisa xiswona aswi sukela eka leswi maPedi ava pendisa swona tiyindlu tavona kusuka eku sunguleni, kambe swisungule kuva na xiave xa vona kusukela eka malembe yava 1940s loko va Ndzundza vaha tshama emapurasini ya valungu.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni