Imbali yama Ndebele

Amaqela Esizwe sama Ndebele

©Dr Peter Magubane
Imbali yama Ndebele iquka umphakathi wenkulungwane (19th century) apho ukuqhekeka kuka Kekana kwisizwe sama Ndebele kwathikwehlula isizwe, sangama qela ohlukeneyo, athi lamaqela anonela ezintabeni, kwiinduli namathafa angqunge indawo eyaziwa kule mihla njenge Potgietersrus, Zebediela kunye ne Pietersburg. Lamaqela athi athathwa angaphantsi kwamanani aphezulu kwaye aphetheyo angqunge amaqela abe Sotho, ze afikelela kwixesha lokutshintsha inkcubeko yawo.

Umahluko ke, inzalelwane yeenkosi zama Ndebele, ukumkani uManala kunye no Ndzundza bagcina inkcubeko eyodwa, bagcina nolwimi lwabo. Ukupeyinta izindlu, umsebenzi weentsimbi, kunye nokwenza izihombisi ndlu ekuthiwa xa kuthethwa zezama Ndebele, eneni aveliswa ngama Ndzundza Ndebele akwi Southern Transvaal.

Ngeminyaka yo 1820, ubungqina bubonisa okokuba kwakukho izindlu zama Ndzundza ezazo khiwe ziqelelene ecaleni kwe Steelpoort. Ukuqelelana kwalamakhaya kwakusenziwa yinkosi uMzilikazi kunye nabalandeli bakhe, kodwa nangenxa yokungavani kwamaqela emveni kokufa kwenkosi uMagodongo. Ukususela ngeminyaka yo 1840, amafama amhlophe (amabhulu), athi aqalisa ukuthuthela kummandla ophezu kwelwandle obandayo (highveld) ngobuninzi babo ukususela ngeminyaka yo 1830, baqalisa ukungenelela kwindawo ezazihlala ama Ndzundza Ndebele.

Iindawo zamabhulu zakhula phakathi kwe Olifants kunye ne Steelpoort rivers, kodwa ubude bezidolophu nekomkhulu lase Konomtjharhelo, obabuqalwe ngolibambela lama Ndzundza ongu Mabhoko, wabonakala ewadika amabhulu kunye nama Ndzundza ngokufanayo. Iinzame zamabhulu okuthathela kuzo ubukhosi azizange ziphumelele.

Kwalandela iindibano ezintathu ezilandelayo kwaye ezingazange ziphumelele, ezinye zezintetha zazidibanise ama Swazi kunye namajoni amabhulu, amanye amabhulu ashiya indawo exhalabile, logama amanye aqalisa ukuhlonipha igunya lika Mabhoko ze bade bamncoma. Ekupheleni kweminyaka yo 1860 no 1870, Amandla ama Ndzundza ayephethe kakhulu loom-mandla.

Umlo nama Bhulu

Emveni konyaka ka 1877, ngenxa yokuthathwa kwe Transvaal ngama Britane nokoyiswa kwama Pedi ngama Britane ngonyaka ka 1879, ukulingana kwamandla kwasuka kwikumkani ezikwimi mandla ye Afrika ezimeleyo.

Ekwindla ngo 1883 kwaqhambuka umlo phakathi kwamabhulu nama Ndebele angama Ndzundza aphantsi kwenkosi uNyabela, amabhulu aseka indlela yokubamba phantsi ko kwalowo lowayephethe uPiet Joubert. Iinyanga ezisibhozo, uNyabela nama Ndzundza awayeshiye indawo yawo yokuhlala ngase Steelpoort ze benza iqembu kufuphi no Nyabela bavaleleka eKonomtjharhelo.

Ubungqina obusandula ukufumaneka buchaza okokuba ama Ndzundza axhobileyo aye agrunjelwa kwindawo ezazikumhlaba omkhulu. Ukutshatyalaliswa kwesivuno sama Ndebele nokuthathwa kwemfuyo yeenkomo yayi zizenzo zeenkosi, ezo abantu bazo babenyanzeliswa ukuthobela kancinci kancinci.

Ngenyanga ka July uNyabela wanikezela washiya indawo yakhe okokugqibela, njengoko amabhulu yayingawo aphumelelayo, awutshisa umzi wakhe emveni kokuphuma kwakhe. Zathi ke iimeko ezibekwa ngabo babephumelele kulomhlaba baboyiswa kuwo babeka imithetho engqongqo. U-Nyabele namanye amalungu asebukhosini babanjwa, yonke imihlaba yama Ndzundza yathathwa yanikezwa amabhulu, lowo uqale ukufika, ingakumbi abo babethathe inxaxheba ekubambeni uNyabela.

Amabhulu aphumeleleyo ayekhathalelwe ngokuthi anikezwe igunya lokukhetha kuqala ama Ndzundza njengezicaka efama. Oku kuthetha okokuba ama Ndzundza ayesasazeke kwimi mandla yase Mzantsi we Transval Republic, kuquka izitishi zase Lydenburg, Middelburg, Standerton kunye ne Wakkerstroom.

Ama Ndebele Kwifama zaba Mhlophe

Kwifama ese Kafferskraal, engekudanga kwidolophu endala, ama Ndebele Ndzundza enza isikolo sesiko lolwaluko (wela) okukwathi kwabethusa abasebenzi abangama Bhulu. Umzi wobukhosi, ongesanawo umhlaba kwaye owawungasekho, babesenza ulwaluko, kwiminyaka emithathu emveni kokutshatyalaliswa kobukhosi.

Kude ke nokutshabalaliswa kwesiko lama Ndzundza, lombutho ungapha kwenkulungwane wase Afrika kwakunikeza iimeko zakudala nezentlalo kunye nezithethe ezi ngoku zibonwa njenge ziqhelekileyo kuma Ndebele. Ezinye zazibolekwe kancinci kuma Pedi akufuphi, kodwa eqeqeshwe ngama Ndebele logama behlala kuma fama abamhlophe. Ulwaluko lwama khwenkwe ama Ndzundza Kwaku bonakalisa ama Pedi kuba zombini zazilawulwa yinkosi kunokohlulwa kumasapho ohlukileyo njenge ndlela ama Nguni enza ngayo ngesiqhelo.

Oku kwakubala imiphumela yokukusasazwa kwama Ndebele kwifama zabamhlophe, kuvumela ikumkani igcine amandla wayo nangona ekude kubantu bakhe. Indlela yokutyabeka yama Ndzundza yayifana naleyo yama Pedi, kodwa bayenza ngendlela ethile enomahluko ngo 1940 logama ama Ndzundza ehlala kwifama zabamhlophe.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie